Titles 13-14 of the Malolos Constitution Simplified

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January 31, 2022

Article 89

The Assembly, on its own initiative or that of the President of the Republic, may propose amendments to the Constitution, indicating what Article or Articles are to be amended.

Article 90

This proposal having been made, the President of the Republic shall dissolve the Assembly, and shall convoke a Constituent Assembly which shall meet within three months. In the decree convoking the Constituent Assembly, the resolution mentioned in the preceding Article shall be inserted.

Title 14: Constitutional Observance, Oath, And Language

Article 91

The President of the Republic, the Government, the Assembly, and all Filipino citizens shall faithfully observe the provisions of the Constitution.

The Legislative Power, upon approval of the Appropriations Act, shall examine if the Constitution has been strictly complied with and whether violations, if any, have been duly corrected and those responsible for the violations held liable.

Article 92

The President of the Republic and all other officials of the Nation shall not enter into the discharge of their office without having taken the prescribed oath.

The oath of the President of the Republic shall be taken before the National Assembly. The other officials of the Nation shall take their oath before the authorities determined by law.

Article 93

The use of languages spoken in the Philippines shall be optional. Their use cannot be regulated except by virtue of law, and solely for acts of public authority and in the courts. For these acts the Spanish language may be used in the meantime.

Transitory Provisions

Article 94

Meanwhile and without prejudice to the provisions of Article 48 and to the acts of the commissions designated by the Assembly to translate and submit to the same the organic laws in the development and application of the rights granted to Filipino citizens and for the government of public powers therein mentioned, the laws of the Republic shall be considered those found existing in these islands before the emancipation of the same.

The provisions of the Civil Code relating to marriage and civil registry, suspended by the Governor General of these islands; the Instructions of April 26, 1888 to carry into effect Articles 77, 78, 79, and 82 of said Code; the law on civil registry of June 17, 1870 which refers to Article 332 of the same, and the Regulation of December 13 following for the enforcement of this law, without prejudice to the Chiefs of towns continuing to be in charge of inscriptions in the civil registry and intervening in the celebration of marriage between Catholics, shall also be deemed in force and effect.

Article 95

In the meantime that the laws referred to in the preceding Article have not been approved or enforced, the Spanish laws which said article allows to be enforced provisionally may be amended by special law.

Article 96

Once the laws approved by the Assembly have been promulgated in accordance with Article 94, the Article 94, the Government of the Republic shall have the power to issue decrees and regulations necessary for the immediate organization of the various organs of the State.

Article 97

The present President of the Revolutionary Government shall assume later the title of President of the Republic and shall discharge the duties of this office until the Assembly when convoked proceeds to the election of one who shall definitely exercise the duties of the office.

Article 98

The present Congress, composed of members by suffrage or by decree, shall last for four years, or for the duration of the present legislative term commencing on the 15th of April of next year.

Article 99

Notwithstanding the general rule established in part 2 of Article 4, in the meantime that the country is fighting for its independence, the Government is empowered to resolve during the closure of the Congress all questions and difficulties not provided for in the laws, which give rise to unforeseen events, of which the Permanent Commission shall be duly apprised as well as the Assembly when it meets in accordance with this Constitution.

Article 100

The execution of Article 5, Title III shall be suspended until the constituent Assembly meets in session. In the meantime, municipalities which require spiritual ministry of a Filipino priest may provide for his necessary maintenance.

Article 101

Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 62 and 63, bills returned by the President of the Republic to the Congress may not be repassed except in the legislature of the following year, this suspension being under the responsibility of the President and his Council of Government. When these conditions have been fulfilled, the promulgation of said laws shall be obligatory within ten days, without prejudice to the President making of record his non-conformity. If the reapproval is made in subsequent legislative terms, it shall be deemed law approved for the first time.

Additional Article

All the estates, edifices, and other property possessed by the religious corporations in these islands shall be deemed restored to the Philippine State as of May 24, 1898 when the Dictatorial Government has been constituted in Cavite.

BARASOAIN, January 20, 1899.

The President of the Congress PEDRO A. PATERNO

The Secretaries

PABLO TECSON PABLO OCAMPO Aguedo Velarde Alberto Barretto Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista Antonio Luna Antonio Feliciano Arcadio del Rosario Ariston Bautista Ariston Gella Arsenio Cruz-Herrera Basilio Teodoro Benito Legarda Ceferino de Leon Domingo Samson Esteban de la Rama Felipe Buencamino Felipe Calderon Felix Bautista Felix Ferrer Pascual Fernando Cañon Graciano Cordero Gregorio Aguilera Gregorio Aglipay Higinio Benitez Hipolito Magsalin Hugo Ilagan Ignacio Villamor Isidro Torres Isidro Paredes Javier Gonzales Salvador Joaquin Gonzales Joaquin Luna Jose Basa Jose Salamanca Jose R. Infante Jose F. Oliveros Jose Tuason Jose Santiago Jose M. de la Vina Jose M. Lerma Jose Albert Jose Coronel Jose Alejandrino Jose Fernandez Jose Luna Juan Nepomuceno Juan Manday Juan Tuason Justo Lucban Leon Apacible Leon Guerrero Lorenzo del Rosario Lucas Gonzales Maninang Manuel Xerex Burgos Manuel Gomez Martinez Manuel Calleja Marciano V. del Rosario Mariano Abella Mariano Lopez Mariano Crisostomo Martin Garcia Mateo Gutierrez Ubaldo Mateo del Rosario Melecio Figueroa Mena Crisologo Miguel Zaragoza Narciso Hidalgo Resurreccion Pablo Ocampo Pablo Tecson Roque Patricio Bailon Pedro A. Paterno Perfecto Gabriel Pio del Pilar Raymundo Alindada Ricardo Paras Salvador V. del Rosario Santiago Barcelona Santiago Icasiano Sebastian de Castro Simplicio del Rosario Sofio Alandi Sotero Laurel Telesforo Chuidian Teodoro Sandico Teodoro Gonzales Tomas Arejola Tomas G. del Rosario Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera Vicente Foz Vicente Guzman Pagulayan Vicente Somoza Vito Belarmino

Presidency of the Revolutionary Government of the Philippines. D. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, President of the Revolutionary Government of the Philippines and Captain General and Commander-in-Chief of its Army. Know all Filipino citizens: That the Assembly of Representatives of the nation, by virtue of its sovereign power, has decreed and I have sanctioned the political Constitution of the state.

Therefore, I command all the authorities, civil as well as military, of whatever class or rank, to keep it and cause it to be kept, complied with and executed in all its parts, because it is the sovereign will of the Filipino people.

Done at Malolos, on January 21, 1899

EMILIO AGUINALDO