Title 4b

Citizen's Obligations Icon

January 28, 2022

Article 18

No one shall be obliged to pay any public tax which had not been approved by the National Assembly or by local popular governments legally so authorized, and which is not in the manner prescribed by the law.

Article 19

No Filipino who is in full enjoyment of his civil or political rights, shall be impeded in the free exercise of said rights.

Article 20

No Filipino be deprived:

  • of the right to freely express his ideas or opinions, orally or in writing, through the use of the press or other similar means.
  • of the right of association for purposes of human life and which are not contrary to public morals; and lastly
  • of the right to send petitions to the authorities, individually or collectively.

The right of petition shall not be exercised through any kind of armed force.

Article 21

The exercise of the rights provided for in the preceding article shall be subject to general provisions regulating the same.

Article 22

Crimes committed on the occasion of the exercise of rights provided for in this title, shall be punished by the courts in accordance with the laws.

Article 23

Any Filipino may establish and maintain institutions of learning, in accordance with the laws authorizing them. Public education shall be free and obligatory in all schools of the nation.

Article 24

Foreigners may freely reside in Philippine territory, subject to legal dispositions regulating the matter; may engage in any occupation or profession for the exercise of which no special license is required by law to be issued by the national authorities.

Article 25

No Filipino who is in full enjoyment of his political and civil rights shall be impeded in his right to travel freely abroad or in his right to transfer his residence or possessions to another country, except as to his obligations to contribute to military service or the maintenance of public taxes.

Article 26

No foreigner who has not been naturalized may exercise in the Philippines any office which carries with it any authority or jurisdictional powers.

Article 27: Citizen’s Obligations

All Filipinos are obliged to:

  • defend his country with arms when called upon by law, and
  • contribute to the expenses of the State in proportion to his means

Article 28

The enumeration of the rights provided for in this title does not imply the denial of other rights not mentioned.

Article 29: Prosecution of Public Officials

The prior authorization to prosecute a public official in the ordinary courts is not necessary, whatever may be the crime committed.

A superior order shall not exempt a public official from liability in the cases which constitute apparent and clear violations of constitutional precepts. In others, the agents of the law shall only be exempted if they did not exercise the authority.

Article 30: Suspension

The guarantees provided for in Articles 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 and paragraphs 1 and 2 of Article 20 shall not be suspended, partially or wholly, in any part of the Republic, except temporarily and by authority of law, when the security of the State in extraordinary circumstances so demands.

When promulgated in any territory where the suspension applies, there shall be a special law which shall govern during the period of the suspension, according to the circumstances prevailing.

The law of suspension as well as the special law to govern shall be approved by the National Assembly, and in case the latter is in recess, the Government shall have the power to decree the same jointly with the Permanent Commission, without prejudice to convoking the Assembly without the least delay and report to it what had been done.

However, any suspension made shall not affect more rights than those mentioned in the first paragraph of this Article nor authorize the Government to banish or deport from the Philippines any Filipino.

Article 31

No one shall be judged by a special law nor by special tribunals.

No person or corporation may enjoy privileges or emoluments which are not in compensation for public service rendered and authorized by law.

War and marine laws shall apply only for crimes and delicts which have intimate relation to military or naval discipline.

Article 32: Property

No Filipino shall establish laws on primogeniture, nor institutions restrictive of property rights, nor accept honors, decorations, or honorific titles or nobility from foreign nations without the consent of the Government.

Neither shall the Government establish in the Republic institutions mentioned in the preceding paragraph, nor confer honors, decorations, or honorific titles of nobility to any Filipino.

The Nation can reward by special law approved by the Assembly, conspicuous services rendered by citizens of the country.