SOME LATIN ADJECTIVES1January 31, 2022
|iron ferrous, ferric|
|copper cuprous, cupric|
|village (good sense) rural|
|village (bad sense) rustic|
|snake, serpent serpentine (zigzag is the English adjective)|
|world, earth mundane|
|five [elements] quinquelemental|
|husband/wife (pair) conjugal|
|salt saline (salty is the English adjective)|
|fish piscal (fishy is the English adjective)|
|nerve [system] neurological|
|star astral, asteric|
|gas pneumatic (e.g., pneumatic power; gaseous is the English adjective)|
|fire igneous (e.g., igneous rock)|
|pad3 pedal, pedestrial (pedestrian – noun)|
|milk, lactose lactic, lactorial|
|blood sanguine, sanguinary|
|sediment sedimentary, residual|
|town, city urban|
|ox, bull bovine|
|ear (in the sense of physicality) auricular|
|ear (in the sense of faculty) audible|
|ear (in the sense of inference) acoustic|
|eye (in the sense of physicality) optical (e.g., “He is suffering from optical trouble.”|
|eye (in the sense of faculty) ocular (e.g., ocular proof|
|eye (in the sense of inference) visible|
|N.B.: The English adjective of Wales is Welsh; the adjective of lathi is lethal, which is Indian English; and the adjective of white is wheat, which is old English.|
|equal in side equilateral|
|equal in balance equivalent|
|equal in weight, mass equipoised|
|equal in number equinumeral|
|insect-eating insectivorous, pestivorous|
|(1) Many of the entries here represent instances where the adjective form of a classical word has entered the English language, but the noun form has not entered the English language or has not remained in it. For example, the Latinate adjective mundane remains in the English language, but the noun mundus either has not entered the language or does not remain.|
(2) -itis is an old adjectival suffix. –Eds.
(3) Originally meaning “foot”, as it still does in the case of animals. –Eds.
(4) Golden [in the sense of “made of gold”] is bad English. A gold ring means a ring made of gold. A golden ring means a ring whose colour is like that of gold.
(5) In ancient times some towns took special steps to check the [spread] of disease coming from sheep. That is why even nowadays we use the term quarantine period for post-disease care.
CHAPTER 17: DIMINUTIVES
In order to create diminutives in English, suffixes such as the following (-let, -kin, -et, -ock, -ling, -ule, etc.) are used.
|(1) Small objects related to the arm or ankle. –Eds.|