Maxims 13-30by François Quesnay
13. Freedom of Cultivation
Each person should be free to cultivate in his own field those products that his interest, his faculties, and the nature of the earth suggest to him will produce the largest possible result.
One should not favor monopoly in the cultivation of land, for it is prejudicial to the nation’s general revenue.
Favoring the abundance of products of the greatest need, disregarding the purchasable value of the one or the other is caused by short-sightedness.
- This short-sightedness does not see the effects of exterior reciprocal commerce that supplies to all.
- This exterior reciprocal commerce fixes the price of the products that each nation can cultivate with the greatest profit.
Next to the riches of land cultivation, it is the revenue and taxes that are the riches most needed in a state.
- These taxes:
- defend subjects against scarcity of food and want, against enemies
- sustains the glory and strength of the monarch and the prosperity of the nation.
14. Multiplication of Cattle
The raising and multiplication of cattle should be encouraged. They furnish to the earth the manure that produces the richest harvests.
15. Cultivation Extensive Enough
The land employed for grain should be reunited as far as possible to form large farms to be cultivated by rich laborers.
This is because there is less of expense and much more of net products in the larger enterprises of agriculture than in the smaller.
The multiplicity of small farmers is prejudicial to the population.
The net product product maintains:
- a more secure population
- more freedom for the different occupations that divide men into different classes
All thrift and economy profits the work that can be done by means of animals, machinery, rivers, etc., returns to the advantage of the people and the state, for the greater the net product, the more of gain is there to the people of whatever service or occupation.
16. No Obstacle* to the Exportation of Goods
Superphysics: We implement the freedom of trade by including cross-border barter via points. In this way, the lack of money will no longer be an obstacle to exporters.
External commerce of the products of the land should not be arrested nor prevented in any way, for it is the demand, the market, that regulates the production each year.
17. Freedom and Ease in Transportation
The means of the transportation of the productions of manual labor should be facilitated by:
- repairing roadways
- the navigation of canals, of rivers, and of the sea.
The more that is saved in the act of carrying on commerce, so much more is added to the revenue of the territory.
18. Good Prices for Agricultural Products and Merchandise
The price of agricultural products and merchandise in a country should not be lowered as this would make the reciprocal commerce with foreign countries disadvantageous to the nation.
As is the purchasable value of things, so is the revenue.
Abundance and no value is not wealth. Dearth and high prices is misery. Abundance and high prices is opulence.
19. Low Prices Are Harmful to the People
Low prices are not profitable to the laboring class. This is because the cheapness of products:
- lowers the wages of the laboring people
- diminishes their comfort
- procures less lucrative work and occupation for them
- destroys the revenue of the nation.
20. Comfort for the Lowest Classes of Citizens
The comfort of the lowest classes of citizens should be not diminished. They must aid in the consumption of products, if reproduction and the revenue of the nation are not to be lessened.
21. Avoid Unfruitful Economy
Let the landlords and those who exercise the lucrative professions not give themselves up to unfruitful economy, for this would cut off from circulation and distribution a portion of their revenue or of their gains.
22. Little or None of the Luxury of Decoration
The luxury of decoration should not be entertained to the detriment of land culture, or any of the investments and outlays made necessary for subsistence, for the stability of these preserves good prices, the demand for the lands, products, and the production of the nation’s revenue.
23. Reciprocity in Commerce
The nation should not suffer from loss through reciprocal commerce with other countries even if this commerce were profitable to the merchants.
Such merchants do not regard the welfare of their fellow-citizens. The accumulations of the fortunes of these merchants would curtail the circulation of revenue prejudicial to distribution and reproduction.
24. Balance of Money in Trade is Illusory
No one should be deceived by an apparent advantage in reciprocal commerce with foreign countries known as the balance received in money, without examining and comparing the profits that result from the merchandise one has sold and the merchandise which has been bought.
Often, the loss is to that nation which receives a surplus in money. This loss reacts to the prejudice of the distribution and reproduction of the revenues.
25. Complete Liberty in Commerce
There should be complete liberty in commerce.
The surest, most exact, and most profitable policy for interior and exterior commerce of the state and nation consists in the greatest possible freedom in competition.
26. Attention to the Revenue Rather Than to Population
The policies for the accumulation of revenue should be give more importance over the policies for increasing population size.
The greater ease in procuring large revenues is preferable to the greater pressing wants of subsistence, created by a population which exceeds that revenue.
The resources are greater for the needs of a state when a people are in comfort, and there are also more means to make agriculture prosperous.
27. No Economization of the Necessary Public Expenditures
The government should focus on those operations necessary for the prosperity of the kingdom rather than with attention toward expenditures.
With greater riches, the larger expenses will cease to appear so excessive.
But one should not confound a perversion of funds with simple expenses. Such a perversion can dissipate all the riches of a nation and of the sovereign.
28. No Pecuniary Fortunes in the Administration of Taxes
The tax farmers should focus on tax collection, not on lobbying for government spending that take away a portion of the revenue from circulation, distribution and reproduction.
29. Credit of Financiers, Harmful Resource
The extraordinary needs of a state should be supported by the prosperity of the nation, and not by the credit of financiers.
The pecuniary fortunes of financiers are clandestine riches that know not king nor country.
30. Borrowing Always Injurious
The state should avoid loans formed from the funds of financiers.
This is because they:
- burden a state with devouring debts
- occasion a commerce of the finances through the agency of negotiable paper
- increase more and more the unfruitful pecuniary fortunes through the rebate or discount
- separate money from agriculture
- deprive the country of the necessary riches for the improvement of real estate and the exploitation of agriculture.