Part 15

Laka Wood

15. LAKA-^WOOD

Kiang-chon-hiang comes from Sumatra, Java, and P’ong-fong, the districts of Kuang-tung and Kuang-si. Its aroma is also found in all strong and penetrating; it counteracts bad smells.

All Cantonese burn this incense at the end of the year, as

Its price is 25 if (they were making) a Sacrifice to very cheap. The product of San-fo-ts’i on account of the purity and strength of called td-fong-Mang (^ ^ #) its is Heaven ^ considered the best wood fragrance. This is also .3 or «red vine incense»' Notes. work Pahang, on the east coast of the Malay Peninsula.

In the first part of this

  1. P’ong-fong, that laka-wood was a product of Sumatra, Tan-ma-ling (Kwantan), Fo- states the author Borneo. 30 lo-an (Beranang), Sho-p’o (Java), the Celebes (?), and says it was a product Tung-si-yang-k’au, 3,is*,i7* uses the name kiang-Uang, and it is also c&Wei U-M-Mang, says Pon-ts’au, 34.36, The Palembang. ofPatani(-:/r VM), and is given as the name of a kind of gharu-wood. which, in another passage (supra, p. 205, line 25), lit. ..burning fueb), was not performed or fan-ch’ai {j^
  2. The ..Sacrifice to Heaven)), Li Ki, II, 202. The simile does not Legge, See Sovereign. the 35 by the people at large, but by cheapness of this odoriferous wood, the of view that, in mean only can it appear a happy one; ^ every one celebrated the coming of the fan-ch’ai. New Year in the same way as the Emperors did with the author states that the sap of the laka-wood tree In another passage (supra, p. 198) our dragon’s-blood». (.imitation 40 was used to make an

14*212 MUSK- WOOD. — JACK-FKUIT. II, 16-17 16.

MUSK-W^OOD (0 Sho-hiang-mu comes from Chan-ch’ong and from age As best variety. wood down and falls When fresh cut, it which where is it decays; this is of a strong a good deal for making furniture resembling that made the this have been unable Chinese works. has nothing to to identify this product, The Tung-si-yang-k’au, say concerning Pon-ts’au does not refer to it, 3,io’' (:^ 10 nor have we found any mention of it in other mentions this product as coming from Kamboja, but except that the I-t’ung-chi says it has the odour of musk. The it. 17. 15 JACK-FRUIT The po-lo-mi is (’^ B ^). of the size of a pumpkin; its outer skin is covered with nodules like the hair on a and turns yellow when Buddha’s head. Its colour is green while growing, The pulp, when cut out of the ripe. fruit, is of extreme sweetness. The tree resembles a banian, and the flowers grow in clusters (|^). When 5 wood of rose-wood Note. We • and unpleasant The people of Ts’uan-chou use the inferior quality. is Clion-la. It is a tree fragrance has a slight resemblance to that of musk, the its «musk-wood». is called odour; this sinks into the ground, tK). the flowers fall and the fruit sets, only rest shrivel up. The po-lo-mi comes from Su-ki-tau; Nam-hoi Temple (^ y$ j^) 20 one develops, the it is also found at the in Canton. Note. the product of the Artocarpus integrifolia; the origin of our name for it, jack, 25 the Malayalam name of the fruit, chaMa. Its Sanskrit names are panasa, phalasa, and lantaka- This fruit is Yule and Burnell, Crawfurd, Hist. Indian Archipel., I, 422. De’can- indigenous to the Western Ghats-possibly Malabar. The fruit was at calleip’o-na-so by the Chinese, which is the Sanskrit name ^amasa. The Sui-shu 82,?’’ is I be- phala. dolle, op. first is cit., 239, thinks lieve, the earliest boja) it spe^s Glossary, 335. it is Chinese work of «the p’o-na-so to ( mention this (^ Diospyros kaki) and whose the sM the name fruit. Among the products peculiar to Chon-la (Kam- 30 1^ ^[J ^) tree which had no flowers, and whose leaves were like was like a pumpkin (tung-kua). «Later on it received was given it on its introduction into Canton in the sixth century by a native of «the country of Po-1ob (’^ ^), whence the name of the fruit. Po-Io, according to T’ang-shu, 222B, was S. W. of Kamboja’(Chi-t’u), and Won-hien-tung-k’au, 35 331. Sect. P’o-li, identifies it with P’o-li, which is supposed to have been in the Malay Peninsula. fruit of po-lo-mi, which, the Chinese say, Conf. supra, pp. 83, 85, n. 4, 96.11,17-18 213 ARECA-KUTS. (^ Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, 18,8^ has the following on the jack-fruit= «The F’o-na-so tree grows ({jj) in also grows in Fu-lin, Po-ssii (Persia); it ^ where it is ^) ^[5 a-p’u-to (|J^ called °^ a-sa-to |J^ ^1 according to Pon-ts’au). The tree grows to 50 or 60 feet The bark is blueish-green. The leaves are very shiny, they do not wither in winter or 5 summer. The fruit does not come out of the flower, but proceeds from the stem of the tree, and nP ?lS high. is as large as a pumpkin. It has a husk enveloping pulp number of them. They have stems (;^)- Inside the yellow, which is excellent eating when roasted.)) See 10 P’ing-chou-k’o-t’an, 2,5* says: The ripe fruit call it like a is at the and on the husk are spines (^J)- The po-lo-mi. When pips there is a kernel like a chestnut and Hirth, J. A. 0. S., XXX, 24. «In front of the Nan-hai-miau (in Canton) there is a big also pumpkin, when opened its sections (J^) are properly prepared (lit. steeped) it is good to eat The Nan-hai (Nam-hoi • it, sweet and edible. The pips (inside the pulp) are as big as jujubes, and one fruit has a is Cantonese)-miau in Canton in is like bananas. (y^ ^ The tree. natives ‘pT ^^).» supposed to have been founded end of the sixth century A. D. The two jack-fruit trees in it were said to have been 15 planted during the Liang dynasty (A. D. 502—557), and are supposed to have been the ancestors of all the jack-fruit trees in the neighbourhood. See Kuang-tung-sin-yii (published in 1700), 6,7, At the present time the jack-fruit is found all over Kuang-tung, Hainan and southern Formosa. The image of the iirst propagator of the jack-fruit in China the native of the kingdom of Po-lo referred to previously is worshipped down to the present day in the Nam-hoi and 25,28, et seqq. — — 20 temple, where jack-fruit trees are 191, III, still grown. Notes and Queries on China and Japan, Concerning the origin of the Chinese name joo-Zo-mi for on the Chinese language, 437, phala II, 169, U. is inclined to think and mi may be the Chinese word fruit, it this fruit, Thos. Watters, Essays a mixed term, po-lo may be Sanskrit for for honey. This explanation appears to us a fairly 25 satisfactory one. The T’ang-shu, (A. D. 647) a mission Emperor with Populus alba, 30 possible that 2k po-lo L.). mentions that in the twenty-first year of the chong-Tcuan period 22lA,i7’’, from Magadha (Central India) which came (’/ij^ Po-lo is, this particular viffi) ^’^^^- This tree, it is said, to the as noted previously, the Sanskrit one may have been Chinese court, presented the (y 7^ — but seems resembled a pai-yang tree word for «fruit)) a po-lo-mi or jack-fruit tree, if it not a pine-apple. 18. ARBCA-NUTS (^ The pin-lang comes from districts of 35 coir-palm «The Hai-nan; it is several foreign countries, also from the four likewise found in Kiau-chi. The tree resembles the (^#^)^ fruit grows on the leaves, fastened to them in clusters, as on willow twigs. “When gathered in the spring or «soft areca-nuts») and or afresh areca-nuts»); 40 the M)- summer it is is it is called commonly known as pin-lang-sien then good to chew. or the autjumn and dried it is called juan-pin-lang When mi-jpin-lang (^ (;^J gathered in {^ ^ ^214 or 11,18-19 COCOANDT. areca-nuts»). Preserved in salt ccrice called yen-pin-lang it is (^ /^ |^ or «salted areca-nuts»). Small and pointed nuts are called M-sin-pm-lcmg (^ (^ ^ ^^J -^ or ^Ij? ^ or «chicken heart areca-nuts»), large and flat ones ta-fu-td «big bellies»).»^ “When chewed, these nuts have the make wine San-fo-ts’i they effect of preventing eructation. In 5 out of the juice. «The Customs at Canton and Ts’iian-chou derive an annual revenue of several tens of thousands of strings of cash from the trade carried on in this products by foreign ships. But most of the product comes from Hai-nan. The “fresh nuts» and the «salted nuts» come from there, whereas the M-sin and lo the ta-fu-td varieties come mostly from Ma-i. JSTotes. 1) Pin-lang a transcription of the Malay is pinang. Nan-fang-ts’au-mu-chnang, China) and that comfit)). it is also De Candolle, caWei pin-mon-yau-tsim op. cit., 344 thinks author mentions betel-nuts in the first and of the Philippine islands He named says that S,!* (Ma-i). it name of the areca-palm (Areca catechu, L.) comes from Lin-i {mR &. Southern Indo- it {^S P^ ^S may be part of his “^g) <” «pin-mdn medicinal 15 indigenous to the Malay Peninsula. Our work as a product of Ooromandel, of calls (supra, p. 160) the betel-nuts He place yau-pin-lang or «medicinal areca-nutso. Hainan brought from the last mentions (supra, pp. 60, 78) wine made with areca-nuts as in use in Sumatra (San-fo-ts’i) and Java. 2) 20 This paragraph, as also that part of the last paragraph in quotation marks, are taken from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 8,3. The Pon-ts’au, 31,14—19, says the ta-fu-tzi is also called chu-pin-lang, apig betel-nut)). 19. COCOANUT «The ye-tsl, as regards the trunk (if ^). and leaves, 26 closely resembles the coir-palm and the areca-palm. Th« fruit grows in the leaves in bunches of several nuts of the size of a vessel holding five pints of fruits, with the sole exception of the jack-fruit. is at first green and tender, but after some time (4f-). When it It is the biggest cut the outer skin turns yellow, and when 30 kept a long time the skin shrivels and dries up. The nut shell contained in the outer skin can be made into vessels; the pulp inside the shell is of a jade-like white, and of an agreeable taste, resembling that of cow’s milk. juice (vg) inside the pulp stale it turns they muddy, and make wine is is The very clear and fragrant when fresh, but when no longer drinkable.* In the states of Nan-p’i out of the juice of its flower mixed with syrup. 3511,19-20 Note. The whole De He Candolle, is of this section, except the last phrase, op. cit., disposed to place 345 — 350 is quoted from Ling-wai-tai-ta, in the Indian Archipelago. It appears to have it 8,4. discusses the question of the original habitat of the cocoanut. 5 China in the second century before our era. Nan-fang-ts’au-mu-chuang, made from it in Indo-China (Lin-i and Nan-ytt6) and it adds, is commonly called YUe-wang-t’ou (;^ been already known in 3,2, refers to the toddy to its intoxicating property. ^^ The cocoanut, ahead of the king of Yue»), because in olden times there was a feud between the king of Lin-i and the king of Nan-yli§, and the former sent an assassin who killed the king and cut off his head, which the king of Lin-i 10 a tree. After a while made still changed it into a slop-bowl (’^ ^r)’ On when the king in anger had it had hung on down and cut “^^^ people of the South, the author adds to clinch the story, making slop-bowls, out follow this custom of dynasty). into a cocoanut, of cocoanuts. See also Ling-piau-l(l-i, 2,6^' (T’ang the subject of liquors used in southern Asia, the Pon-ts’au, 31,20, refers to a number, among them one made in Tun-sun to (in the Malay Peninsula probably) with the juice of the 15 flowers of a tree like a pomegranate. In a previous passage (supra, p. 89) our author says that in Ku-lin (Quilon) athey made a liquor with a mixture of honey (or syrup) with cocoanuts and it was similar OAK-GALLS H^ :^ ^). the juice of a flower, which they let ferment;» perhaps to that mentioned in the Pon-ts’au. 20. 20 Mo-slii-tzi The come from Wu-ssi-li tree resembles the camphor-tree, similar to the Chinese acorn p’u-lu (>j^ 25 called ^), ma-ch^a (^ and which (^ ^), is which {^MW- Mosul) in the Ta-sM country. it blossoms once a year and bears a fruit |^), and called sha-mo-lu (fp j^ ^), or edible. The following year it grows what is is the same as mo-sM-td. The year following appear again sha-mo-lu, and the mo-sM-tz’i grow in alternate years, so it to see one root produce diffe- is a valuable article. What a wonderful thing rent fruits Note. 30 The Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, 18,8% appears to be the earliest Chinese work to describe in some detail oak-galls. It says= « Wu-sU-U% (fife ^,) come from Po-ssi (Persia), and in Persian they are to seventy feet high, and eight or nine feet in cir- sixty is ’tree The called mo-ts6 tt)- the third moon its flowers open, they cumference. Theteaves are like peach leaves but larger. In a pill, at first green, but when ripe like round is white and reddish in the center. The seed (^ ^ are pierced by insects, the perfect nuts are 35 a yellowish white. Those with holes in them have been One year the tree produces wu-sM-tei, medicine. make to used are these skin; the without holes in of the size of thefingqr tip and three inches produces po-lu-tei the following it (^ Jp ^) in which is the kernel, like a chestnut, of brown long. On the upper end there is a cup (^) colour and which is’ edible.» only adding the Our author derives most of his information from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 3,4», 40 sha-mo-lu. Wu- m^Chinese oak, royal or shdh-lalut and (p’u-ltt) Mut, Persian names of the oak, represent the Persian »!«««, the word for oak-galls. sM-tsi, mo-sM-m, mo-tso and ma-ch’a, all216 11,20-21 EBOKY. Thos. Watters, Essays on the Chinese language, and Sui-shu, 83,16* mention Duarte Barbosa, tou-shi-tz’i as 349. See also supra, p. MO. Wei-shu, 102,12% one of the products of Po-ssi (Persia). speaking of the trade of in the beginning of the fifteenth century, merchants dealt with were magican, awhich are gall- nuts, which they bring from the Levant to Cambay, by way of Mekkah, and they are worth a great deal in China and Java». Description of the Coasts of East Africa and Malabar, 191 (Hakl. Malacca, says that among the articles See. edit.). its Heyd, Hist, du Commerce, II, 644. some doubt whether mau-li, which we have translated by «acorn», should not be See also There is Porter Smith, rendered by «chestnut»; this confusion exists among the Chinese. See butions, 60 5 and Bretschneider, Botanicon Sinicum, II, Contri- 10' 320. 21. EBONY m ^). i% Wu-mon-tzi resembles the coir-palm (/j?^ ^f^)’, an erect tree of it is olive-green colour, growing to a height of an hundred feet and more, with a thick green and highly luxuriant foliage. Jts wood is as hard as iron and 15. lends itself to the manufacture of woodware, being glossy like lacquered ware, for which reason it is wood generally considered a precious (^ ;;fc). Note. (^ ^) Ku-kin-chu, 3,i, says= «I-mu Tongking (Kiau-chou). Its colour is black, and “’"(iIto ‘^ ^1^ it is or wo-i-mu veined. It is ^ (^^ ‘^) ((black -veined- woods). P6n-ts’au-kang-mu, 3513,87, name wu-mon-mu and ivu-wfin-mu are says that the wu-mu (J^ ‘^)< ^^’-^ name used at Schlegel’s doubts, who (T’oung Pao. Ser with Nan-yiie-pi-ki, is 13,6 says that much used among «wu-mu is a product of Kiung-ch6u (in (^^ |Si is very great many is 25- ^) make chopsticks of. The Euang-cM ( 1^ kindofwM-mu called Tiio-wu (-^ ,^ ), which is uniformly brittle. There is also a variety called cVa-wu which is the natives to (brought to China) by foreign ships and which None yij;) Hainan) and of the says there comes from Hainan a black throughout and identical the present day to designate ebony. This disposes of II, Vol. II, 127) says tou-man-mu stands for ((Black fir-tree» and signifies wArenga saccharifera.» islands. It comes from also called ««M-if6w-(Canton.m6TC) 20^ varieties of (this kind of) wu-mu, (^ ^
is eo dense that it sinks in water.’ There are a 30’ which are good for making canes and tables. pronounced o-han-tgl, and this word no doubt corresponds to the Persian abnus (e’Pevoq) (cebonyj), from which the Spanish abenuz and our eimy are derived. The Persian ahmis is also, apparently, the lonus of Marco Polo, of which he says there were vast forests in Champa (the Chan-ch'6ng of the Chinese). Yule, Marco real unless Polo, II, it sinks in water.s In all of Amoy dialect wu-mdn-fei is 36- 250, 252. The explanation of this wood being designated by the same term in old Chinese works and by the Persians must be that, either the Chinese received their first supplies of it through Persian traders, or the word is indigenous to one of the Indo-Chinese districts where the tree grows, and that it had travelled to the east and west with the article. This last expla- 40. nation would somewhat modify the traditional etymology of the names for ebony known to the ancient Greeks, Hebrews and Latins. Ebony, it should be remembered, species of trees of the genus Diospyros and the natural order Ebenacete. the passage quoted above, shows that the Chinese are aware of this fact. the wood of various The Nan-yue-pi-ki, ia is ‘11,22-23 SAP AN-WOOD. ' — COTTON. 217 22. SAPAN-WOOD Su-mu comes from the country of Chon-la. and juniper. The leaves are 6 habitat is in larly known is The tree resembles the pine like those of the tung-tsHng tree it. “When the bark of a deep red colour and it ^)’ (^ pj). Its the uncultivated parts of the hilly country, where the people are allowed to cut sun, m as wa-mu (^ removed and the wood dried is may be used in dying purple. It is in the popu- TJiC). Note. The wood 10 of the Caesalpinia sappan. It Brazil-wood in Western mediaeval commerce. Its was known to the Arabs as bakkam, and as name in Malay is supang, which is the original of the Chinese su-mu, or rather of the earlier form su-fang, concerning which Nan-fang ts’au-mu- sophora) variety. The i^) belongs to the huai chuang, 2,4, says= «T)ie su-fang {J^ (|^ flowers have black seeds. 15 China) make The tree grows in Chan-ch’Sng (Annam). a deep red dye by steeping it in Ta-yu The men of the south (of (^ J^) water, which (has the property of) making the colour particularly deep.» The word su-fang is said by some Chinese writers to be the name of an island. Pon-ts’au, 352,35’’. Conf. Yule, Marco Polo, II, 869, where sappan is derived from Japan, an impossible derivation, as the name J’i-pon (Japan) was first used in A. D. 670. In connexion with dye stuffs, it is interesting to note that already in the sixth century, or 20 very early in the seventh, the true indigo or Indigofera tinctoria, L. was known to the Chinese as a product of the Persian (Sassanian) province of Ts’au (:J^); it was called in Chinese ts’ing-tai ^). Sui-shu, 83. Sect. Ts’au. See Bretschneider, J. C. B. K. A. S., XXV, 214. The term tung-tsing here used is a descriptive and comprehensive one («winter-green») (W applied to certain evergreen oleaceous trees which harbour the wax-insect. Porter Smith, 25 Materia medica, 229, Hanbury, Science papers, 67.It is the Ligustrum lucidum, Bretschneider, of “Wa-li». Bot. Sinic. Ill, 513—517. Wa-mu may be an abbreviation for Wa-li-mii or «wood Wa-li is mentioned by our author (supra, p. 54) as a dependency of Chon-Ia.

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