The little Republics in Europe

September 18, 2015

What is the origin of the little European republics and the rights of sovereign and subject?

The Origin of Republics

In some countries, the provinces far from the seat of government sometimes became independent. This was the case in most of Germany and France during Charlemagne’s time.

Hugh Capet was chief justiciary. He got the government into his hands, but took only the title of the King of France.

The Pope raised disturbances in Germany. He prevented Emperor Otho from getting Italy for a long time. But when he got it, he could not keep it because of its distance.

Every little town formed itself into a republic, with a council of its own choosing at its head. Some German towns, such as Hamburgh, were well fortified. They assumed the same privileges, and still retain them in some measure.

The Italian towns are governed by a hereditary nobility, though the ancient republics were perfectly democratic.

In Venice and Holland, the people freely gave up the government, because they could not support the trouble it gave them. The Dutch and Swiss republics were formed into a respublica foederata.

Their strength depends on Their Manner Of Voting [binary elections].

When there are 100 votes and three candidates A, B, and C, the most odious candidate might get elected [dividing the vote].

  • There might be 34 votes for A,and 33 for B, and 33 for C.
    • Thus, A wins even if there are 66 votes against him.
  • This is also true for if a criminal is brought before this assembly.
    • 34 may think him guilty of murder, 33 of manslaughter, and 33 of chance medley.
    • Yet he must suffer for murder.

To prevent this, in some of these republics they ask a simple [binary] question [activation function]= Is he guilty of murder or not?

If there are three candidates, they vote on two candidates first to arrive at one candidate and then vote on him and the last candidate. In their senates, the president never has a deliberative vote, but only a decisive one because they will allow no member to have two votes.

When there is an equality on both sides, nothing can be done. Therefore, the business is not rejected but referred to another meeting.


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