Part 1

Camphor

1. CAMPHOR

Nau-tzi, or camphor, comes from Brunei, called according to some Fo-ni

it also comes from the country of Pin-su The common report that

fact is merely this roughfare for the

also found in Palembang, Sumatra is owing that, traffic it is to this country being an error; the an important tho- of all foreign nations, the produce of all other countries is intercepted and kept in store there for the trade of foreign ships. The camphor-tree 10 the hills is like and the remotest the pine-tree (;|0); valleys. unhurt, the tree will contain the it grows in the depths of So long as branches and trunk continue gum even for hundreds and thousands of years; otherwise it will evaporate. When the natives go into the hills in order to gather the camphor, they go in troops of several tens of men; they are provided with clothes made bark 13 of tree They go they fell (or fibre) and with supplies of sJia-Jiu

sago) for food.

in different directions, and whenever they find any camphor-trees, them with many as ten or more; they them among themselves equally, after their hatchets, and then cut these into lengths and divide mark as which each one cuts his share into boards; these again they notch along the and cross-wise 20 sides these is so as to produce chinks, got out by forcing a wedge into them ^ The camphor which forms (il& 25 :^ and the camphor collecting in |g), because it crystals is called resembles the plum «plum flower camphor» flower; an inferior quality is ^ called «gold foot camphor» {-^ |^); broken bits are called «rice camphor» with splinters, it is called «grey camphor» jg^); when these are mixed up (^ (^ camphor has been removed from the wood, it is called Is); after all the ((Camphor chips)> (JJ^ :J^[j). Nowadays people break these chips into small bits and mix them with sawdust, which mixture they place in a vessel of porcelain, covered 30 when baked by another vessel, the in hot ashes, the openings being hermetically closed; vapour formed by the mixture condenses and 13194 ir,l CAMPHOR. forms lumps, which are called «collected camphor» women’s head ornaments and the oily sort of camphor pungent aroma; it called like purposes*. «camphor oil» (Jgg y^), JJ^); There is furthermore an which is of a strong and it is answers for moistening incense, or mixing with

used for oil

Notes. 5 Fo-ni and P’o-ni, both pronounced in Cantonese Fat-ni and Put-ni, transcribe respectively 1) Brni, Borneo, and apply more particularly to the west coast of that island. See supra, pp. 155, 156. Pin-su, in Cantonese Pan-ts’iit, the latter form representing the sound Pansor, is the Pansur or Fansur of mediaeval Arab and vrestern writers, the Barus of later writers. Barus is the name of the principal mart of this commodity in Sumatra, and the word has been affixed by traders to 10 it from the camphor of Japan. See Reinaud, Relations, I, 7, Masudi, Prairies d’or, Ibn Batuta, Voyages, IV, 241, and especially Yule, Marco Polo, II, 282, 285—288. Also Crawfurd, Hist. Malay Archipelago, I, 515—517. Liang-shu, 54,i4% mentions among the products of Lang-ya-siu (3& ^’ Vm} (which discriminate , I, 338, be Tennasserim or the Kra district on the Msilay Vemnsuls!) p o-lit-Mang (^^ :ffi’ .S>), t5 and T’ang-pon-ts’au (Pon-ts’au-kang-mu, 84,56) says that «in olden times p’o-lu-hiartg came from may P’o-liis. We are inclined, however, to believe that^ o-Zit is a truncated transcription of Sanskrit Jcar- pura, and does not represent Barus, as Gerini (Researches, 427) and Pelliot (B. E. F. E.G., 341) are disposed to think. Hiian-tsang, Si-yu-ki, 10, speaks of Me-pu-lo (^^ IV -^i) as a ‘f|j product of Madura. 20 Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, 18,7*, says nThe tree which produces the alung-nau perfumes comes from P

by Persian Icapur).

It

also Perak, or thereabout), comes from Po-ssi where (Persia, i. e., it it is called hu-pu-p’ o-lii was brought to China The tree is from eighty to ninety feet high, and some six or seven (feet) in The leaves are round and white on the back. It has no flowers. The tree is either “^6an» (^^)- Lean trees produce t\6 p o-lu-Ttau (or tibalm» >M^). One authority ships). circumference. «fat» [-^’ o-li (»§ H^ (J52) *”' 25- says that lean trees produce lung-nau (our abaroos camphor))), and the fat ones p’o-lii-kau into the heart of the tree (camphor balm). If one cuts out freely from the butt (i^)- The drug can be and splits it open, the oil (lit. grease) flows got also by chopping thepiecesinapit. There are other methods of extracting it». Conf. up the wood and putting Marsden’s remarks in note 2. 30' Marsden, History of Sumatra, 121, says= nThe natives, from long experience, know whether any (camphor) is contained within, by striking it (i. e., the tree) with a stick. In that case, 2) they cut it down and split it with wedges into small pieces, finding the camphire in the interstices in the state of a concrete crystallization. Some have asserted that this substance is procured, or camphire oil; but this, I it is from the old trees alone that and that in the young trees it is in a fluid state, callei meeniacapoor, 3S have good authority to pronounce a mistake. The same kind of tree does not produce the dry, transparent, and flaky substance, nor ever traders distinguish usually three difi’erent degrees of quality in it, by the names of head, belly and foot, according to its purity and whiteness, which depend upon its being more that produces the would …. fluid, The or less free from particles of the wood, and other heterogeneous matter, that mix with it in collecting, after the first large pieces are picked out. Some add a fourth sort, of extraordinary fineness, of which a few pounds only are imported to Canton in the year, and sell there at the 40 rate of two thousand dollars the pccula. 3) In a previous passage (supra, p. 156), our author mentions four varieties of camphor as it may be the same as the ts’ang-nau here coming from Borneo; one of these he calls su-nau; mentioned. See Gerini, Researches, 432 et seqq. Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, 1,8% mentions some extraordinarily fragrant camphor which was brought to (in A. D. 756) as tribute from Kiau-chi or Tongking. It was the Emperor of China Huan-tsung called lau-lung-nau and also, a^v^Tentlj, jui-lung-nau

HS). This

may be fourth sort» mentioned by Marsden in the preceding note, though no longer by the name given it in the known T’ang dynasty. Nearly all the camphor used in China is procured from the Laurus camphora, L., called Chang {^m)- Nan-yufe-pi-ki (of the eighteenth century), 5,io, says that lung-nau (baroos camphor) 5 comes from Fo-ta-ni (’^ ;^ Patani?). The Cantonese mix it with chang-nau (i. e., camphor from the Laurus camphora) which comes from Shau-chou (^^ in Kuang-tung); hence its name of shau-naun. In northern China camphor is usually called ch’au-nau (iM B^) from Ch’au- ch6u, also in Kuang-tung, and not far distant from Shau-chou. This latter name ck’.au-nau must be the correct form. See also Bretschneider, Botanicon Sinicum, 346 (J. 0. B. K. A. S., XXV). 10 Linschoten, Voyage to the East Indies, II, 118 (Hakl. Soc. edit.) remarks that one pound of Borneo camphor was worth one hundred pounds of Chin-cheu (i. e., Chinese) camphor. 4) Marsden, op. cit, 123 says= «The camphire oil is a valuable domestic medicine, and much used by the Sumatrans It is rather a liquid and volatile resin, distilling from one species of the camphire tree, without any oleaginous quality». 15 Our author states (supra, p. 67) that camphor was also a product of Tan-ma-ling, of Java (p. 77), and of Ling-ya-ssi-kia (p. 68) Chou K’ii-fei adds Chu-lien. See supra, p, 100, n. FRANKINCENSE Ju-Mang (^ #). («milk incense))), or Mn-lu-hiang {"^ 20 the three Ta-shi countries of Ma-lo-pa, Shi-ho, P^ ^)S comes from (|j[j) and Nu-fa, from the depths of the remotest mountain Valleys. The tree which yields this drug may, on the whole, be compared to the sung (;^ which the resin flows out, pine). Its coast); the Ta-shi load goods in San-fo-ts’i; and is notched with a hatchet, upon and when hardened, turns gathered and made into lumps. It 25 (on the trunk it it is into incense, which is transported on elephants to the Ta-shi upon their ships is for this for barter against other reason that the incense is commonly collected at San-fo-ts’i*. When authorities, the foreign merchants come to that place to trade, the Customs according to the relative strength of 30 thirteen classes of incense. or «picked incense»: ^), it is commonly called ti-ju Of its fragrance, distinguish these, the very best is called it is Uen-Uang {1^ round and of the size of the end of a finger; (^fL) or «dripping milk»^ The second quaUty milk», and its colour is inferior to fi) or «potted fing-himg that of the «picked incense». The next quality is csMq^ being prized so much or «potted incense», so called, they say, owing to its is called pHng-ju (^ {^ ^) 35 at the time of gathering, that Uang and it is placed in pots {pHng ^). In this pHng- superior, medium, (variety of frankincense) there are three grades, or «bag incenso); next quality is called tai-Mang inferior. The (^ ^) 13196 11,2 FEANKIKCENSE. thus called, they say, because at the time of gathering, bags; it is merely put into divided into three qualities, like the p’ing-Mang. it is also The next kind the ju-fa is (^ ‘^); consists of incense it mixed with gravel. {^ :^), because its colour is black. The shui-sM-Jm-t’a (^ ‘^ ^ i^), because it consists of The next kind next land the is the is Jiei-t’a 5 aroma turned, and the colour incense which has been «water-damaged», the spoiled while on board ship. Mixed incense of various qualities and consisting of broken pieces (^ called cho-siau when passed through a sieve and made ch’an-mo (|§ «powder»). The above are the various ^\ «cut-up»); into dust, it is called is lo ^ varieties of frankincense. Notes. 1) Ju-Mang China, was given «milk». or «inilk incenseo; this, the from it Marco Polo old sound hun-luk) common name for olibanum or frankincense in name of incense luban means likewise 15 The second name liun-lu (in Cantonese fan-lvk, appearance. The Arabic its «white incenses. calls it unquestionably derived from the Arabic kundur (.iX^), or the Indian form is hnndu 01 Tiundwra. Turkish-osm. Dialecte, vol. II, col. 1636, may giinlUJc, afrankincense, olibanum », Eadloff, be derived from the Chinese. Conf. Hirth, Worterbuch d.TQrk- J. A. 0. S., XXX, 23. word Mn-lu to designate frankincense, but there is some 20 confusion in their use of the term, benzoin and other drugs being frequently confounded with the true olibanum. See Bretschneider, Botanicon Sinicum, 111,460 462, and Ancient Chinese and Arabs, 19; also Hirth, China and the Eoman Orient, 266—268. Pon-ts’au, 34,45’’ gives its ffi||), tu-lu «foreign names» as mo-lo .^S, erroneously (j^ “‘S’) °^ h’ie-to-lo, (’/^ written to-Tc’ie-lo). Tu-lu is probably Sanskrit turu{shJca), the Indian incense, and k’ie-to-lo is 25 The older Chinese works only use the — ^ (^ hhadira, the Acacia catechu. 2) Ma-lo-pa or Merbat, Shi-ho or Shehr and Nn-fa or Dufar, were the three ports of the coast of Arabia, the «Land of Frankincense)). See supra, pp. 116 and 121, n. 11. Hadramaut Nan-fang-ts’au-mu-chuang (third century A. D.) is a big tree (which furnishes sea-coast in Ta-ts’in. It 2,i’’, it), says ahun-lu incense comes from the the branches and leaves are just like 30 those of an old pine (/j^). It grows in the sand. The flowers (lit. buds) are full-blown in summer, (when) the sap of the tree flows onto the sand, where it is gathered)). Sni-shu, 83,i6 mentions hun-lu-hiang among the products of Po-ssi (Persia), meaning probably that it was brought to China on Persian ships. Huan-tsang stated that in the country of 0-ch’a-li (in Southern India, near Malwa) grew the hun-lu-hiang tree, the leaves of which resembled those of the 35 pyrus). This is presumably the Boswellia thurifera, Colebrooke, whereas the t’ang-li (^ ^ Arabian olibanum Sinicum, II, is produced by the Boswellia 303, III, 460. See also Marco Polo, 441, says «Dufar See Bretschneider, Botanicon Carterii, Birdw. Linschoten, op. cit., II, 99. a great and noble and fine city, and lies 500 miles produced here, and I will 40 tell you how it grows. The trees are like small fir-trees; these are notched with a knife in several places, and from these notches the incense is exuded. Sometimes also it flows from the tree with- out any notch; this is by reason of the great heat of the sun there.)) See also Yule’s exhaustive to II, the north-west of Esher note on the above in his (i. e., is es-Shehr) Marco Polo, II, …. Much white incense is 442—447. Theodore Bent, Exploration of the Fran- (p. 119)= «Near Cape Risut a 45 kincense country. Southern Arabia (Geo. Journal VI, 109—134, says large tract of country trees, their small is covered with frankincense trees, with their bright green leaves like ash green flowers, and their insignificant fruit Hoye and Haski, about four days journey …. inland from Mirbat The …. best is obtained at spots called The second in quality comesII>2-4 MTEEn. — dkagon’s-blood. 197 from near Cape Risut, and also a little further west at a place called Chiseri». «To the south of Mount Haghier (in Sokotra) one comes across valleys entirely full of frankincense-trees. The best quality is called leban Idkt, and the second quality Ulan resimln Theo. Bent, Southern Arabia, 234, 252, 380. 3) writers. Our author knew of the African frankincense (supra, p. 130) as well as of the Arabian. or anipple incenses by mediaeval Chinese Also called ju-fou-hiang Bretschn eider, (^ |^ ^) Botanicon Sinicum, III, 460. 3. MYRRH Mo-yau comes from 10 The ii^ ^). the country of Ma-lo-mo (0 R|| j^) of the Ta-shi. tree resembles in height and size the pine-tree (7^) of China; its bark is one or two inches thick. At the time of gathering the incense they a hole ground at the in the foot of the tree, and then split first dig open the bark with a hatchet, upon which the juice runs down into the hole during fully ten days, when it is removed. Note, 15 The Chinese name for myrrh, meaning «mo medicine or drug» is a transcription of the Arabic name mwrr through the Cantonese mu. See BretschneiderJ Ancient Chinese and Arabs, 20, note 4; and Hirth, J. C. B. R. A. S., XXI, 220. Pon-ts’au, 34,49, quotes no authorities — on 20 this subject earlier Ma-Io-mo than the Sung. Hadramaut coast of Arabia. Our author has stated in his description of the Berbera coast (Pi-p’a-lo) that that country produced much myrrh (supra, p. 128). At the present time the best myrrh comes from the Somali country near Harar. The myrrh which is got from the hills about Shugra and Sureea to the east of Aden (which must have been included 25 in Merbat as Chinese understood it) is of an inferior quality. See Encyclopaedia Britannica (9* edit.) XVII, 121. Theo. Bent, Southern Arabia, 254, says myrrh in large quantities grows in the Gara mountains of the Hadramaut. Hanbury, Science Papers, 378—380, says myrrh comes from the Ghizan district on the east coast of the Bed Sea, from the coast of Southern is clearly an error for Ma-lo-pa or Merbat, the This error has been noticed in a previous passage, supra, p. 121, n. 11. Arabia, east of Aden, from the Somali country, south and west of Cape Gardafui, and from the 30 country between Tajura and Shoa. See also Linschoten, op. cit., II, 99. The mo mentioned in the Yu-yang-tsa-tsu (18,io^) as being called a-tz’i ([JfH” -^^ the last Character being also read so, tso and tsoJc) in Fu-lin, is the myrtle, the Aramean name of which is asa, the original of a-tz"i. Hirth, J. A. 0. S., XXX, 21. 4. DRAGON’S-BLOOD 35 Hiie-Jcie comes also (j^ ^). from the Ta-shi countries. This tree is somewhat the myrrh-tree, except that its leaves are rather different in size of the latter; the manner of gathering is also the same. There is like from those a variety of198 11,4-6 SAYEET BENZOIN. tree whicli is as smooth as the face of a mirror; these are old trees, their juice by the hatchet; flows spontaneously, without their heing tapped best quality. Incense which contains an admixture of bits of the juice of the lakawood-tree (|^ dragon’s-blood)) (^ j^ wood m. ^), and is commonly this is the is made of called «imitation 5 ;6g). Note. In his description of Chung-li, author says (supra, from this c, the Somali coast including the island of Socotra, our i. 131) that dragon’s-blood, aloes, tortoise-shell and amhergris were procured p. island or the adjacent waters. The Periplus Papt TO Xeroptevov ‘IvStxov), «which Arabs called it Wustenfeld, is gathered as it name (§ 30) mentions it of aindian cinnabari) (xcvva- 10 exudes in drops from the tree.» The (tears) Yakut’s katir (jJjUiJl), and this name, occurring in description of Socotra (ed. the original of hiie-Me, pronounced hUt-Jc’it in Cantonese. This the «drop dragon’s-blood» of commerce, the spontaneous exudation of may be III, 102,3), Socotran dragon’s-blood Erythraean Sea of the as a product of the island of Dioskorides (Socotra) under the is a leguminous tree, Pterocarpus draco, which grows at elevations between 800 and 2,000 feet 15 above sea-level. See also Theo. Bent, Southern Arabia, 379, 388. The ordinary Me-kie used in China is the produce of a large species of rattan growing on the north and north-east coasts of Sumatra, with some parts of Borneo, and principally manu- factured at Jambi, Palembang and Banjermassin. The Fon-ts’au (^7^ ^), The Nan-yue-chii The test of its purity Crawfurd, that is it is it adds, saysthat «it wax when like yielded by the it’o-Zra (V-S ^3 Daemouorops are of opinion that the Chinese drug Ancient Chinese and Arabs, 21, note 6. is is (||^ ^^ jt^ «fc’t-Zm blood»). iiO the sap of thete«-fcM«5’-tree (^’’ 0j)|}. This bit into.» traceable to T’ang period writers. Giles, Dictionary, is Hist. Indian Archipelago, III, 240. (34,50-5i) calls dragon’s-blood k’i-lin-kie is a confusion with stick-lac, arid fm Hsiieh, says that dragon’s-blood Bretschneider and Porter Smith s. v., draco). furnished by the Pterocarpus draco. Bretschneider, 25 See also Encyclop. Britann. VII, 389. 5. SWEET BENZOIN Kin-yen-Mang comes, the Ta-shi kind in its best is of inferior quality. found in San-fo-ts’i must be understood (^ M #)• and standard quality, from Chon-la; The statement that as meaning that it is this incense is 30 imported thither from the Ta-shi and merely transshipped at that place by merchants for importation to China. This incense is the juice of a tree; there and another of a black snow-white colour, quality. Its aroma is other perfumes. It is colour. a pale yellow coloured kind, the best; that which contains gravel so strong that it is is That which, on being broken open, shows a may be largely used for mixing is 35 of inferior used in combination with all by those who wear sachets of ambergris and other perfumes of delicate aroma. Foreigners also prepare from it, with (other) perfumes, a mixture with which they rub their bodies. 40’’ ° ’’’ DAMMAR. igg Note. Ein.yen hiang or agolden coloured 5 From the ‘"" ^"^"’^ °^ ’’ <=- th:t"““V^”’^ “”"^ ’’ “’’”’ ’’’ “”’^”’’"’^ “’"^ rb?:fdorb 1197 whi^e thl incense,,. description given of it in the second ‘^’^ “^^’-^^^ °f Linschoten, op. cit., “’”‘‘°°”^ subsequently (infra, p. 202) as a product of Eastern Sumal^o rs n fo I’ r”; the «benu,m amendoado,, of the same writer. It was known to the Arabs (f;"-f!>-«>)/« “^ ^’"^ ^^^^^^^A but did not become known in Europe before the T L7l« rJi f^f T.r T’’”’" century. Heyd, Hist, du Commerce, 580. See also Ibn Batuta, Voyages, ?V tri K f l^^n-ym.^uang was the name specially given the Kambojan II, ^^Y°T ihe btyrax ‘^ variety of the drug. a native of Sumatra and Java, and was introduced into Siam, Borneo, etc «Siain benzoin is generally regarded as the best, and of it two varieties are distinguished. The finest quality is Siam benzoin «in tear», it being in small flattened drops, from tne size of an almond kernel downward. «Lump., Siam benzoin consists of agglutinated masses ot such tears, or of tears imbedded in a darker coloured resinous matrix. Tear benzoin varies in 15 colour from a pale yellow to a reddish-brown colour, and lump benzoin has a conglomerate- like structure from the dissemination of almond-shaped tears throughout the substance Sumatra benzoin occurs in larger rectangular masses of a greyish tint, with few large tears in It, but contammg small white opaque pieces, with chips of wood and other impurities, in a translucent matrix),. Encyclop. Britann. (gth edit.). Ill, 581. “’^^ Ta-shi kind is of inferior quality,, means, I take it, that the incense ^° in lu Benzoin is brought PI,- China by the Arabs from their various trading-stations by way of Palembang inferior to that which was brought direct to China from Kambqja. in to Sumatra, was -J”’^°’^‘‘y^“S-k’au, 3,17, refers among the products of Palembang to Un-yin-Jiiang or “gold and silver incense,,, which seems, from the few words of description there 25 of it and quoted from the Hua-i-k’au :^) to be the same as the fo-n-2/en- hiang. It is true that on this same page we find mention of an-si-Mang, but the description of (^ ^B ^) given alR — (^ — || drug there given only strengthens the probability of these two products being the two by Linschoten and other travellers. In another passage, Tung- si-yang-k’au, 3,9^ mentions Un-yen-hiang as a product of Kamboja and describes it on the this varieties of benzoin mentioned 30 authority of the I-t’ung-chi ( — j^ J^), which in turn quotes textually our text. 6. DAMMAR (:^ ^ f:). Tu-nau-hiang comes from the country of Chon-la: it is the exudation of a tree -which resembles the pin? {i^) and juniper (|^) family in shape; but 55 the gum (^) lies concealed in the bark. “When the tree is old, it runs out spontaneously, as a white and vitreous resin, for which reason melt, though the If, in the summer heat may be at its summer months, the trunk kept burning around -40 again; it may be variety of incense it is called «7^e^ it, height; this of the tree liquid in the (or black) tu-naun. does not called tu-nau. scorched by a fire cause the fluid resin to flow out freely this will gathered during the winter, when is is is it it hardens; for this summer, and hardens during the winter; The natives fill gourds (^ pHau) with it,200 11,6-7 LIQUID STORAX. and the shippers afterwards The transfer it into porcelain vessels. ilavour of and lasting; the black variety easily melts and leaks this incense is pure through the gourd; but by breaking the gourd and exposing may obtain something similar to the original article now called tu-nau-‘fiau or agourd dammar». one it substance. to the fire, This is the 5 Note. The Chinese word tu-nau transcribes the fifteenth century Ying-yai- Malay damar. In the 0|). Crawfurd, Hist. Indian Archipelago, I, (:^ 455, says= «In almost every country of the Indian islands there are trees which afford damar. Bumphius enumerates four varieties. These produce different sorts of the rosin, which take 10 sheng-Ian the form ta-ma-‘ir occurs their names ^^ One in commercial language from their colour or consistency. Damar Damar-putch, or white rosin is used for all is called Damar-batu and another in common use the purposes to which we apply pitch, means the stony in Malay, or Bamar-selo in Javanese, which rosin, but chiefly in paying the bottoms of ships and vesselso. Marsden, dammar Hist, of Sumatra, 128, says that white Lampoon called cruyen, the wood dammar tattoo, in being soft and yielded by a tree growing in from the common sort, or somewhat the appearance of putty.» See also of which a species of turpentine, 15 is is white and porous. It differs whitish, having the consistence, and Yule and Burnell, Glossary, 228. 7. LIQUID STORAX (^ -^

20 yft). Su-ho-Jiiang-yu comes from the countries of the Ta-shi. Its taste are, aroma and on the whole, similar to those of tu-nau (dammar). Richness and freedom from sediment are the Foreigners commonly use Fu-kien use it first requisites in it when in like fashion mixed with jum-Uang (^ ^ a good sample. to rub their bodies with, and the natives of with paralysis (;^ ^)., It is 25 or cdncenses of delicate aroma»), and may be afflicted used in medicine. Note. The present day su-ho-Uang-yu or «sweet oil of storax», or su-ho-yu nstorax oil», which occurs in commerce in China, is a product of the Liquidambar orientalis, L., of Asia Minor. The storax of the ancients, which became known to the Chinese in the early part of the Christian era as a product of Ta-ts’in, and the name of which OTupa?, they may have mutilated into su-ho, was a solid gum, and appears to have been a product of the Styrax officinalis, Syria. Sui-shu, 83,i6* mentions su^lio as a product of Po-ssi (Persia). which is still common in Apparently the storax sent to China in those early days was very largely adulterated, for Liang-shu, 54,i7», (covering the first half of the sixth century), says that in Western Asia (Ta-ts’in) astorax (su-ho) is made by mixing and boiling the juice of various fragrant trees and that it is not a natural product. It is further said that the inhabitants of Ta-ts’in gatherjhe su-Jio (plant, or parts of it), squeeze out its juice, and thus make a balm or ointment they then sell this drug to the traders of other ‘countries; [^ ^); 30’ 35-11,7-8 it 20 BEXZOIN. many hands hefore reaching China, and when Hirth, China and Koman Orient, 41, 47, 263—266. thus goes through fragrant.)) See D. China is arriving here, it is not so very Hanbury, Science Papers, 143, has conclusively shown that the drug now used in imported into Bombay from Aden, the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, being probably 5 brought thither from Alexandria. He has by comparison also established its identity with the known as Liquid Storax, obtained from the Liquidambar orientalis, L., in Asia Minor. Bretschneider, Botanicon Sinicum, III, 465. The Hiang-p’u, a Treatise on perfumes of the eleventh century, makes the remark that su- ho-yu is akind oitu-nau-hiang or dammar. Bretschneider, op. cit., 464. The Su-ch’bn-liang-fang substance 10 {Wk VJnj ^J ~/j)i ^^®° “^ ^^^ eleventh century, says (Ijis’)= «The su-ho-hiang of the present day is like hard wood, of a dark red colour. There is also su-ho-yu which is like birdlime.o This su-ho-hiang may well have been the classical or solid storax. Our author, in the first part of his work, mentions liquid storax as a product of Baghdad, Rum) and Asia Minor (Lu-mei, of Ki-tz’i-ni (Ghazni). The Huan-yii-chii (-^ ^^ ^^ of the 15 tenth century) says that su-ho-yu was produced in An-nan and San-fo-ts’i. Bretschneider, Bot. Sinic, III, 464. It called in is likely that this Malay rasamala. (HiH ^ ^^ ‘^)> See supra, p. 190, n. “”’^ich, name altingiana, Bl. of Java, of su-ho-yu as twushlca according to Monier Williams, Sansk. Engl. Diet., is Indian olibanum- 1. The expression ta-fong 20 was the resin of the Liquidambar P6n-ts,‘au, 34,54, gives the Sanskrit is actually used in the province of Fu-ki6n as a term for paralysis of either the body or limbs. 8. BENZOIN (^ J, #). San-fo-ts’i; it is the resin of An-si-Mang comes from the country of It resembles the edible part of a 25 tree. not there bum as incense; to fit a demand for is however, it for it walnut in shape and colour, but a it is brings out other scents, for which reason mixing purposes. The T’ung-tien (jg ^), speaking of the Western Barbarians, says that the country of An-si has sent tribute to China during the periods fien-lio 30 of the Chou (A. D. 566—572) and 617). It may and that the ta-ye of the Sui dynasty (A. D. be conjectured that the name article was imported by way is 605— derived from this (country) of San-fo-ts’i. Note. Our author’s doubts about the country of origin of this incense and his failure to explain its Ancient Chinese and Arabs, 35 name, are common to other Chinese writers. See Bretschneider, third centuries of our era, and second the in which, 19, note 2. Bot. Sinic, III, 465—467. An-si, of the Arsacides, to overthrow after the transferred, was Parthia, was the Chinese designation of Orient, 198. During Roman China and Hirth, dynasty. Sassanide the of kingdom the new Persian therefore be held to be identical with the Ch6u and Sui dynasties (A. D. 557-618) An-si may which was the same as theKi-pin says that «the kingdom of Ts’au 40 Persia. Sui-shu, (j^), 83,i6 countries dynasty, had (whether as a product or brought there from other (Hi aromatic sub- other and mu-hiang) our author’s is not clear) an-si-hiang, ts’ing-mu (putchuck, Turkestan), in Chinese Kuchar K’iu-tz’i the section on W) stances.)) °^ ^^^ ^^^ The same work, in (^ ^202 mentions an-si-hiang among 83,ii’’, China by way or K’iu-tz’i’. It is Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, is ISjV’’ is has no it When fruit. it only means that an-si-hiang reached «TLe an-si-hiang says: tree comes from Po-ssi or ((destroying evil tree»). yellowish black. In the second moon products. I fancy its evident none reached China in Chan’s time. (Jg^ ^|^ j^ The leaves have four angles called the pi-sie tree bark 11,8-9 GARDENIA ILOWERS. blossoms; the flower the bark of the tree an-si-hiang. In the sixth and seventh (^); (Persia). In Po-ssi it thirty feet high; the It is they do not shrivel up in winter. 5 yellowish, the heart of the flower is greenish. It is is cut, its moons it gum (^) is like hardens, when syrup (’^p); it is called can be burned, propitiating it the gods and dispelling all evils. The as quoted in Tung-si-yang-k’au, I-t’ung-chi (of the Ming), which produces an-si-hiang is like the k’u-Uen the leaves are like those of the yang-t’au (:¥l supplies the incense is now An-nan, Persia, but Marsdon, (^ ^»^ says that the tree 10 1,11, Melia azedarach, L.)but straighter; Jd^ Carambola tree) but broader. The sap which in the heart of the tree. Pon-ts’au, 34,53, says ((formerly San-fo-ts’i and foreign countries have all aBenjamin or benzoin (caminyan) Hist, of Sumatra, 123, says: it came from it.» …. is produced 15 by a tree which grows in great abundance in the northern parts of the island (of Sumatra), particularly in the Batta country, and met with, though rarely, to the southward of the line.» remarks that «Borneo and Sumatra are the and the territory of Borneo proper in the one, and that of the Battas in the other, the only portions of them …. It has but one name, or at 20 least only one which is current. This is a native term, and is at full length Kaminyan, or abbre- Crawfurd, Hist. Indian Archipelago, only countries which produce viated Minyani). i|j] ^ ^S it (i. e., The Pon-ts’au-kang-mu, Tcu-pei-lo, which seems I, 518, benzoin), to 34,52, gives as the name «foreign» of an-si-hiang be a corrupt transcription either of Sanskrit khadira or of kundura, catechu or Indian frankincense. See supra, p. 196, n. 1. Linschoten (11,96— 98) distinguish two varieties 25 of benzoin, one which does not smell except when in the fire, and the other with a strong scent. Barbosa adds that it is with this latter variety that othe good and genuine storaxis made in the Levant, before extracting from it the oil, which in the Levant is extracted from iti>. Linschoten BothDuarteBarbosa(op. calls the scented variety ((benioin the other variety is cit., 185) and de boninasa or benzoin of the flowers; of white benzoin, like pieces of almonds he adds, is it is «benioin amendoado» or abenzoin of almonds», because among the black. of blackish colour; mixed with pieces 30 aThe benzoin from Sumatra and Java, it is not as good as that from Siam and by Malacca.)) 9. GARDENIA FLOW^ERS The ^) cTil-tsi-hua trating place and it lasting. is ^ :?5). comes from the two countries of Ya-pa-hien (i^ and Lo-shi-mei of the Ta-shi. appearance, but (|ji of a light ^ It resembles the safflower (^j^ 1^) in brown (or purple) colour. Its scent is pene- The natives gather the flowers, dry them in the sun, and them in bottles of opaque glass. Flowers of carnation colour are rare. What in Buddhist books is called tan-ipo ( ^ -‘gj) is 35 the same as this. 4011,9-10 KOSE-WATER. 203 Note. On the Gardenia florida or becho-nuts, see Hanbury, Science Papers, 241 et seqq., and Bretschneider, Bot. Sinic, III, 500—503. Although our author only refers to its use as a per- fume, was, however, largely used as a dye. Ya-pa-hien (or as it is written supra, p. 116 Ya-ssi- is Isfahan, and Lo-shl-mei probably stands for Khwarizm. Supra, p. 134, our author refers to the trade in gardenia flowers from the Persian coast through the island of Kish. He also says (supra, p. 141) that it was a product of Asia Minor (Lu-meii). it 5 pau-hien) Ling-wai-tai-ta, 7,s-4 says: of the Arabs. It is 10 ^) dry what «The foreign gardenia (^ jjfj^ called in the Buddhist books tan-po is ^) comes from the land (1^ ^). The Sea foreigners At the present day when one wants to be scented as if (y^ with ambergris, one uses foreign gardenia, which is even more penetrating. There is a white it like dyer’s safflower. flower just like the gardenia but five-petaled. People say that (the chi-tzi) brought from Si-chu ^t possibly an error for that this 15 is not correct.)) ^^ ^ aWestern India») is (real) ( ^ tan-po, but I apprehend Yu-yang-tsa-tsu, 18,s^ says of this product= vChi-tzi flowers with six petals are rare, but, according to T’au Chbn-po A.D. 451— 536, ([^ ^^ {^ or Tan Hung-king |^ the author of an important work on materia medica; see Giles, Biograph. Dictionary, 718— 719), ^i ;^ only six-petaled chi-tzi flowers can properly be called by that name. If one cuts off flower and is slits open the calyx in seven places, the perfume is very powerful. It 20 the chan-po of the Western Kegions.)) The text has fe yen, which stands change of radicals being frequent cham-pak or chan-po-Tcia Champaca. in old texts. (B^ 3^ ^P), Hirth, J. A. 0. S., XXX, it is tan or dian, the 27. Chan-po, in Cantonese Sanskrit champaka, the is for ps. a six-petaled said that champac tree, Michelia

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