Democracy, Tyranny, Aristocracy, and Oligarchy

The Law of Social Cycles by Socrates Icon

January 1, 2021

According to Socrates, all societies have alternating cycles that begin with democracy that switches to tyranny, then aristocracy, then oligarchy, and finally back to democracy.

  1. A democracy is dominated by working-class people. Its positive aspect is social justice, while its negative is chaos and mob rule. This chaos leads people to want order, paving the way for tyranny
  2. A tyranny is dominated by warriors, leaders, and generals. Its positive aspect is peace and order, while its negative is abuse and corruption. This abuse leads people to want wisdom, paving the way for aristocrats
  3. An aristocracy is dominated by intellectuals. Its positive aspect is wisdom, and scientific and cultural advancement, while its negative is dogma and stagnation. This stagnation leads people to want material wealth, paving the way for oligarchs
  4. An oligarchy is dominated by speculators and businessmen. Its positive is material progress, its negative is inequality and environmental destruction. This injustice leads people to want justice, paving the way for democracy
How does oligarchy change into democracy? Is it wise or not?.. Democracy grandly tramples on the fine principles which we laid down at the foundation of the city, through her forgiving spirit, and the 'don't care' about trifles. She never makes the pursuits which make a statesman. Socrates, Republic, Book 8

The four classes and cycles mirror the four varnas of Hinduism:

  1. Shudras as the democrats
  2. Ksattriyas as warriors
  3. Brahmins as the aristocrat-intellectuals
  4. Vaesyas as the businessmen and merchants

We then match them roughly to the modern classification:

Class Name Adjective Political Class Hindu Socrates
Populists Popular Socratic* Liberals Shudras Democrats
Militants Militaristic Socratic Neoconservatives Ksattriyas Tyrants
Philosophers Philosophical Socratic Conservatives Brahmins Aristocrat-Philosophers
Merchants Mercantile Socratic Neoliberals Vaesyas Oligarchs

*We add ‘Socratic’ to separate them a bit from the modern classification, while having some resemblance


An easy mnemomic is “P-M-P-M” which stands for Populist-Militant-Philosopher-Merchant. In this way:

  • Socialists, Liberals, and American libertarians fall under Populists or Socratic Liberals
  • Dictators, Generals, Communists, and Fascists fall under Militants or Socratic NeoCons
  • Priests, Technocrats, Researchers, and Nazis fall under Philosophers or Socratic Conservatives
  • Big Businesses and Free marketeers fall under Merchants or Socratic NeoLiberals

This makes:

  • Populists and Oliarchs as the Socratic Left Wing
  • Militants and Philosophers as Socratic Right Wing.

Here, Left Wing represents matter (such as money), while Right Wing represents the immaterial (such as the soul).

We use this model to expose the current cycle of any society, based on the outcome of events. For example:

  • a successful popular protest that topples a government indicates that the country is in a populist phase
  • a successful military crackdown of that protest, on the contrary, will indicate that the society is in a militant phase

We use outcomes of changing events* to reveal the soul of the society, just as dust reveals an invisible object by establishing that object’s outline.

*This is what Hegel had in mind when he mentioned dialectics.

Soul of Society

These cycles then reveal the soul of the society, the most important aspects of which are its age and phases. Is a society metaphysically young and rising or old and stagnating? Has a country’s soul been recently replaced by a new one?

Society must therefore have its infancy, youth, manhood, and old age, similar to that each individual form which it contains. Man has these variations equally with every animal and plant. Essay 11: On The Populousness Of Ancient Nations, Simplified Essays by David Hume

Universal Relativity

We plug in this model into our equation-for-everything to come up with something for machine learning to work on:

Universal Relativity

The Story of Survivor Island

The social cycles can be explained in a short story:

One afternoon, a small plane crashed on a deserted island leaving four people stranded – Mei a female construction worker, Sergeant Arthur an army officer, Albert a scientist, and Meg an ex-CEO.

“We must first make a safe shelter because I heard there’s a big tiger on this island,” says Arthur. “I’ll go out to gather food. The rest should follow Mei in building a shelter.”

The group agrees and after a month, the shelter is finished.

“Good, now we must hunt the tiger to ensure our safety,” says Arthur and takes the lead in hunting and killing the tiger, which takes a whole month.

“Now that we’re safe, we can think of ways to get out of this island. Any suggestions?” asks Mei.

“It’s been two months since we crashed,” replies Albert. “The search has surely been called off. We must find ways to settle here permanently. I can share my ideas if you let me take the lead.”

The group agrees and soon they change from Arthur’s tactic of hunting animals for food into a longer term strategy of domesticating them and establishing small fish pens. Without threats and with fewer burdens, the group starts to feel closer to each other and be more relaxed. By the next month, Mei has fallen for Arthur’s bravery, while Meg, for Albert’s intellect.

“I’m pregnant!” Mei shouts. “I’m happy, but our supplies are just enough for the four of us.”

“I’m pregnant too!” Meg responds. “We have to find ways to get more supplies. Since the island is limited, we have to maximize the little resources we have. You should let me take the lead. I want Arthur to chop more wood, Mei to build bigger animal cages and fish pens, and Albert to get the animals to make more milk, eggs, and reproduce faster.”

Within a month, food production is increased dramatically and everyone notices Meg getting fatter.

“You’ve been ordering us around while doing the least work,” exclaims Mei. “Even if you’re smart, you should work like the rest of us!”

The group agrees to put Meg to work like the rest, with Mei taking the lead. In the past five months, the group’s territory has expanded from the first shelter into deeper areas of the water where a big shark lives.

“We must hunt down the shark for our own safety! You must let me lead again,” Arthur exclaims.

And so, the group embarks on the new endeavor as they struggle to fully establish themselves on the island.

Why are there four cycles?

Pantrynomics, the subset of Social Superphysics, explains that the cycles are based on the 4 laws of value which mirror the 4 laws of thermodynamics:

  1. The Popular or Shudra class comes from the First law of Value
  2. The Philosophical or Brahmin class comes from the Second law of Value
  3. The Merchant or Vaeshya class comes from the the Third law of Value
  4. The Militant or Ksattriya class comes from the Fourth law of Value

The intellectual class is the closest to the metaphysical dimension while the worker class is the closest to physical dimenion.

Social cycles

So what’s the purpose of Social Cycles?


If you know things happen in a regular cycle, then you can predict what will happen. In fact, this is how we predicted the crisis years starting in 2019 .

We also have a running list of predictions to prove that cycles work and that we are inside a Matrix.

We use these correct predictions to prove the solidity of the principles discovered by Socrates, David Hume, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Taoism. This is similar to how the solidity of Newtonian Physics was proven by the correct prediction of the arrival of Haley’s comet.

As a science, these cycles and laws of value unify Sociology and Economics by describing the causes of the dynamics of the soul of society.