Propositions 1 to 10by Spinoza
- Thought is an attribute of God, or God is a thinking thing.
Proof: Particular thoughts are modes which express God’s nature, in a certain conditioned manner (Pt. 1, Prop. 25, Coroll.).
- God therefore possesses the attribute (Pt. 1, Def. 5) of which the concept is involved in all particular thoughts, which latter are conceived thereby.
- Therefore, thought is one of God’s infinite attributes, which express God’s eternal and infinite essence (Pt. 1, Def. 6).
- In other words, God is a thinking thing. Q.E.D.
Note: This proposition is also evident from the fact, that we are able to conceive an infinite thinking being. For, in proportion as a thinking being is conceived as thinking more thoughts, so is it conceived as containing more reality or perfection.
Therefore a being, which can think an infinite number of things in an infinite number of ways, is necessarily infinite, in respect of thinking.
As, therefore, from the consideration of thought alone, we conceive an infinite being, thought is necessarily (Pt. 1, Def. 4 and 6) one of the infinite attributes of God.
- Extension is an attribute of God, or God is an extended thing.
Proof: The proof of this proposition is similar to the proof of the last.
- In God, there is necessarily the idea of his essence and also of all things which necessarily follow from his essence.
- The idea of God, from which an infinite number of things follow in infinite ways, can only be one.
Proof: Infinite intellect comprehends nothing except God’s attributes and his modifications (Part 1, Prop. 30).
Now God is one (Part 1, Prop. 14, Coroll.). Therefore the idea of God, wherefrom an infinite number of things follow in infinite ways, can only be one. Q.E.D.
- The actual being of ideas owns God as its cause, only as he is considered as a thinking thing, not as he is unfolded in any other attribute.
That is, the ideas both of the attributes of God and of particular things do not own as their efficient cause their objects (ideata) or the things perceived, but God himself in so far as he is a thinking thing.
6. The modes of any given attribute are caused by God, as he is considered through the attribute of which they are modes, and not as he is considered through any other attribute.
7. The order and connection of ideas is the same as the order and connection of things.
Corollary= Hence, God’s power of thinking is equal to his realized power of action.
8. The ideas of particular things, or of modes, that do not exist, must be comprehended in the infinite idea of God, in the same way as the formal essences of particular things or modes are contained in God’s attributes.
9. The idea of an individual thing actually existing is caused by God, not as he is infinite, but as he is considered as the ultimate cause of its cause.
Corollary= Whatsoever takes place in the individual object of any idea, the knowledge thereof is in God, in so far only as he has the idea of the object.