Crop Rotation for VegetablesJanuary 31, 2022
Some examples of crop rotation include the following:
Oil seeds can be planted in the following way:
1 | Vaeshákha | mid-April to mid-May 2 | Jyaeśt́ha | mid-May to mid-June 3 | Aśádha | mid-June to mid-July 4 | Shrávańa | mid-July to mid-August 5 | Bhádra | mid-August to mid-September 6 | Áshvina | mid-September to mid-October 7 | Kárttika | mid October to mid November 8 | Agrahayańa | mid November to mid December 9 | Pauśa | mid December to mid January 10 | Mágha | mid January to mid February 11 | Phálguna | mid February to mid March 12 | Caetra | mid March to mid April
- half the field should be planted with red mustard and linseed
- the other half with yellow mustard and winter sesame. The soil should be properly tilled before the crops are sown. These crops take 4 months to mature.
- Mid-April to mid-June: maize and green gram.
Another oil seed rotation is as follows:
- Mid-March to mid-June: peanut with sesame and soybean
- Mid-June to mid-Sept: peanut and rainy season sesame or rainy season soybean.
- Áshvina, Kárttika, Agraháyańa, Paośa – half the area should be planted in winter sesame with red mustard, and the other half with linseed and yellow mustard.
- Mágha, Phálguna – sunflower should be planted for 65-80 days, the growing period of the crop, along with green gram.
Potato and Radish
Potato and radish crop rotation should be done according to the following system:
- Áshvina to Agraháyańa – Early potato or 60 day potato.
The best system for preparing the field for potato is to plough the field 16 times:
- 12 times by tractor
- 4 times by power tiller.
Fertilizers like NPK (nitrogen, potassium and phosphate) may be used, either 20:20:20 or 28:28:0 (and then add potash) about 500 kg per acre.
Early potatoes are planted in rows 20 inches apart.
Between the potatoes there should be any variety of early radish. Radish does not have such wide roots. The main root comes down in such a way that it does not affect the potatoes.
Along with these some small spices such as kalo zira, mongrela, fenugreek, five spices, cumin, small ajwain, celery, etc. may be planted. Ajwain is “jamani” in Saḿskrta, “jamain” in Urdu and “Trachyosparmum amni” in Latin.
In the irrigation canal between rows of potatoes, winter pumpkin, winter brinjal (Varanasi varieties), anise, coriander, cumin, and/or capsicum should be grown. The canal is not dug until the potatoes are one foot tall. First put water on the soil, then manure and then dig the canal.
Another crop rotation of early turnip and sugar beet can be planted with early potatoes. Varieties of cauliflower may also be planted, but they must spend the first month in a nursery, then two months in the field. They should be planted on the mound or hill along with the potatoes.
The plants must be watered at least every 8-10 days in the initial stage of their growth. When they get bigger they do not need so much water. One month later, when the potato plants are one foot tall, an irrigation canal should be dug between the rows.
The dirt from the canal should be placed on the mound around the plants growing there. This will preserve the soil and help the plants as well. In the irrigation canal, plant winter brinjal, early lettuce, tomato, palang shák (a green leafy vegetable), big onions, small onions and varieties of cabbage. There are only two varieties of lettuce, early and late. The lettuce should be harvested along with the potato.
The cauliflower is harvested after two months in the field. During this time the potato should be left one month more to spread its roots. Lettuce requires three months and should be harvested with potato. After cauliflower, the early cabbage should be ready in one month.
The soil is tilled 8 times. The same ratio of NPK should be used, but in a lesser amount.
- Agraháyańa to late Phálguna
Late potato or 90 day potato. The soil must be ploughed 8 times.
Plant radish, late brinjal and panar nava shák (or pusne, punanas, gajmije, gadmide or giima – all small green leafy vegetables. Giima is medicinal.) along with late potato which will be harvested in late Phálguna. In Phálguna ginger should also be planted with either sesame or soybeans.
Late potato may also be planted with late cauliflower and cabbage in between. In the irrigation canal plant late cabbage, late lettuce, winter brinjal, tomato, palang shák, garlic and capsicum. After these crops have grown, the soil should be ploughed eight times and NPK of 20:20:15 ratio should be used.
- Caetra – Radish.
Summer radish should be planted with summer shák (green leafy summer vegetables) in the middle. Lal ság may also be planted between the radish plants and is in the same family as summer shák. One or the other may be planted. If one does not plan to plant again in Caetra, one may plant the following in the irrigation canal: winter pumpkin, winter brinjal, anise, coriander and jiira. During early Caetra, ginger may be planted with sesame or soybean from Caetra to Aśádha. Following the summer radish planted in Caetra, rainy season radish can be planted from Aśádha to Bhádra. From late Aśádha to Bhádra, plant peanut and soybean or rainy season sesame.
Shrávańa, peanut and early cauliflower should be planted together in rows. In the canal between the rows plant rainy season brinjal, rainy season green chilli and rainy season shák. Or in place of the peanut and cauliflower, plant sweet potato or sweet juice potato with radish, tomato and winter lady’s finger.
Plough the soil 8 times:
- 6 times with a tractor
- 2 times with a power tiller.
Cow dung and organic fertilizers can be used, but not NPK (nitrogen, potassium and phosphate) until the plants are about one foot tall and healthy.
If summer brinjal seedlings are transplanted in the month of Phálguna, they will give fruit from Vaeshákha to Bhádra.
Between every two brinjal plants grow summer radish, summer notei shák and summer lal shák; summer varieties of creepers like cucumber, gourd, pumpkin and green chillies; and spinach and barbati beans.
The yield of the daisy variety of green chilli and the suryamukhi variety of chilli yield is the same, but the yield of the dhani lanka variety of chilli is much greater. However, the cultivation of dhani lanka is not commercially viable because although it is very hot, it is very small.
Also, the plant grows very large, and this affects the growth of the intermittent plants.
Just as there may be one chilli between two brinjal plants, the reverse can also apply. That is, between two green chilli plants there may be one brinjal. But this type of intermittent brinjal plant should be snake-shaped and not round-shaped.
The snake-shaped brinjal should be planted as an autumn crop and not as a summer crop. Between two brinjals or two green chillies there may be one lady’s finger plant. In the summer two crops of lady’s finger can be produced from Phálguna to Kárttika. Brinjal plants must be replaced every two years because at the end of this period their productivity declines.
The following system should be used for the crop rotation of summer vegetables:
- Shrávańa, Bhádra, Áshvina, Kárttika.
Plough the field 8 times also. Plant transplanted autumn brinjal. Chilli may be grown between two autumn brinjals. The daisy variety of brinjal is better than the mukta keshi variety of brinjal. If any creeping vegetables are planted between two brinjals, they must be grown on a platform, otherwise the vegetable plants will be attacked by pests and insects.
In the month of Agraháyańa, the field may be used for cultivating boro paddy if there is enough water. Alternately, wheat may be sown. The prescribed time for sowing wheat is the end of Kárttika, Agraháyańa and up to the 7th of Pauśa, that is, the 21st of December. Or potato, pulses or winter mustard may be sown. Again, the land can be used for summer vegetables from the month of Phálguna.
If melons are to be grown instead, then the sowing period for both watermelon and musk melon is December, January, February and March. In such a case no winter crop can be cultivated. Melons need sandy soil.
Similar is the case with wax gourd or squat gourd. No other winter crop like wheat, or any other summer vegetable, should be cultivated in the same field as wax gourd. But it must be remembered that wax gourd requires alluvial soil or soil that is a bit sandy, just like melons and winter vegetables such as winter cucumber, winter gourd, etc.
There may be one pumpkin (chal kumŕá variety) between two brinjals in Phálguna or Shrávańa. A sweet made from the chal kumra variety of pumpkin is found mostly in Agra, and is called “petha,” or “murabha” in Bengali.
1/4 of the agricultural land is to be allotted for the following seeds:
- Wax gourd or squat gourd of different varieties
- Bottle gourd
- Lal kumŕá or diingla (varieties of pumpkins)
- Chal kumŕá and sachi kumŕá (pumpkins)
- Small bitter gourd and bitter gourd
- Thorny gourd
- Water gourd
These are all-season vegetables, except thorny gourd which is a rainy season crop.
In a field of creeping vegetables, one may grow rainy season sesame along with the above vegetables in the rainy season. One may also grow winter sesame or mustard – either rái, red mustard or yellow mustard – and in the summer season one may grow summer sesame. This will not affect the productivity of creeping vegetables.
All-season vegetables should be grown as follows:
A. Aśáŕha, Shrávańa, Bhádra, Áshvina:
- Wax gourd
The cuttings of wax gourd are to be planted between Aśádha and Mágha. Fruits are produced throughout the year.
Between every 2 wax gourds there may be one lady’s finger of either the all-season or rainy season varieties, one all-season green chilli, and one radish of either the all-season or rainy season varieties. Even in the rainy season wax gourd can do without a platform.
Gourd of different varieties like round bottle gourd, club bottle gourd, long bottle gourd and ghoti láu are to be planted. Between every two gourd plants there should be an intermittent plant as in 1. above. Gourds of the rainy-season variety must be grown with a platform.
Pumpkin may be either of the rainy season or all-season varieties. Between two pumpkin plants there may be the intermittent crops mentioned in 1. above. Pumpkins of the rainy season variety require a platform.
- Miscellaneous varieties
Intermittent plants should be according to 1. above. Miscellaneous creepers of the rainy season variety require a platform.
Small portions of the land allotted for all-season varieties of crops should be reserved for the bona lanka variety of chilli or sown with other varieties of chilli. The seeds are to be acquired from Shantipur and Kalna.
B. Kárttika, Agraháyańa, Paośa, Mágha:
- Wax gourd – The wax gourd should remain undisturbed. Intermittent plants should be the same as those for the rainy season, but no rainy season varieties should be planted. Varieties should be either all-season varieties or winter wax gourd. Vegetable creepers growing in the winter season do not require a platform.
- Gourd – Gourd should be either of the all-season or winter varieties. Winter gourd sown in winter does not require a platform.
- Pumpkin – Pumpkin should be of the all-season or winter varieties. The intermittent plants should also be of the all-season or winter varieties. Winter gourd does not require a platform.
- Miscellaneous creepers – They should also be of the all-season or winter varieties. They may or may not grow on a platform.
Intermittent plants should be of the all-season or winter varieties.
C. Phálguna, Caetra, Vaeshákha, Jyaeśt́ha. (Summer varieties):
- The wax gourd should not be disturbed. Intermittent crops such as lady’s finger, radish, and green chilli should be of the all-season or summer varieties.
- Summer varieties of gourd do not require a platform. Intermittent crops should be of the all-season or summer varieties.
- Summer pumpkin does not require a platform. Intermittent crops should be of the all-season or summer varieties.
Vegetable creepers of the summer variety may or may not need a platform. However, creepers of the rainy season variety do require a platform, except in the case of wax gourd, which does not need one in any season. Even during the rainy season, wax gourd does not require a platform.
- Vaeshákha, Jyaeśt́ha – grow summer maize with green gram and peanut under the ground.
- Aśáŕha, Shrávańa, Bhádra – grow high yielding sorghum and millet with soybean.
- Áshvina, Kárttika, Agraháyańa – grow corn with soybean.
- Paośa, Mágha, Phálguna, Caetra – grow barley, oats, rye or seasonal cotton for which November is the last sowing period. If the land becomes free during the second half of November, winter cotton may also be cultivated. It grows in three and a half months and has to be watered twice. If cotton is cultivated, sweet potato or sweet juice potato may be grown along with it.
The crop rotation of wheat should be as follows:
A. Early wheat should be planted in Kárttika and grown from Kárttika to Mágha.
- Kárttika, Agraháyańa, Paośa, Mágha – plant wheat with either big lentils, big peas, yellow mustard or red mustard in a ratio of 9:1 wheat to other crops.
- Phálguna, Caetra, Vaeshákha – grow peanut with sesame or soybean.
- Jyaeśt́ha, Aśáŕha, Shrávańa – grow áus paddy with rainy season radish.
- Bhádra, Áshvina – grow maize with green gram for two months.
B. Late wheat should be planted in Agraháyańa and grown from Agraháyańa to Phálguna.
- Agraháyańa, Paośa, Mágha, Phálguna – plant wheat with big lentils, big peas or red mustard. Yellow mustard will not grow well in this season because insects will attack it.
- Caetra, Vaeshákha, Jyaeśt́ha – grow ginger or peanut with sesame or soybean.
- Áśáŕha, Shrávańa, Bhádra – grow late áus paddy with with rainy season radish.
- Áshvina and Kárttika – grow maize and green gram.