Articles 1-12

Preamble

January 29, 2022

Preamble

The foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world is the recognition of:

  • the inherent dignity, and
  • the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family

Disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind.

The highest aspiration of the common people is a world where:

  • humans have the freedom of speech
  • there is freedom from fear and want

Human rights should be protected by the rule of law. Otherwise, man will be compelled to rebel against tyranny and oppression.

The friendly relations between nations is essential.

The peoples of the UN have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in:

  • fundamental human rights
  • the dignity and worth of the human person
  • the equal rights of men and women

We have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom.

Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the UN, the promotion of universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms,

A common understanding of these rights and freedoms is needed to realize this pledge,

The General Assembly proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples.

Everyone should:

  • keep this Declaration constantly in mind.
  • strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international
  • secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves

Article 1

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

No distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Article 3

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 4

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude. Slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Article 5

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 6

Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 7

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law.

All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

Article 8

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

Article 9

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

Article 10

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

Article 11

Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.

No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

Article 12

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation.

Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.