RiversJanuary 31, 2022
There are 3 types of rivers:
- ice fed
- rain fed
- subterranean fed.
Ice-fed rivers cause flooding when there is an increase in the temperature, whereas rain fed and subterranean fed rivers only cause seasonal flooding when there is heavy rain. However, an increase in the temperature can dry them up.
Are the rivers in Ráŕh perennial or seasonal?
Are they ice fed or rain fed, or do they get water from subterranean sources due to the high level of the artesian water?
Many rain fed rivers are only supplied with water in the rainy season and not in other seasons. The rivers in central Ráŕh are rain fed but they are also supplied with artesian water.
We should not depend only on rain fed rivers, because while they may accumulate water in the rainy season, in other seasons they may dry up. And even if rain fed rivers are also fed by subterranean sources which supply water throughout the year, there should still be every effort to conserve the surface water.
There are 4 categories of rivers – small rivulets, rivulets, rivers and big rivers.
Rivers also have three stages – the hill, plain and delta stages. Some rivers, however, do not have their delta stage in the ocean because they expire before reaching the sea. Take the example of the topography of Mithila and Magadh.
In Mithila in the rainy season, sufficient water passes through rivers such as the Bagmati, Gandak and Koshi. The hill stage of these rivers is in Nepal, the plain stage is in Mithila, and the delta stage is in Bengal.
The plains of Mithila contain very soft soil, which is why these rivers always change their course. No rivers have their delta stage in Mithila. To tame these rivers, the cooperation of Nepal and Bengal is required.
In Magadh, unlike Mithila, the hill and delta stages of the rivers are in Magadh, except for the Suvarnareka, which flows just on the border line between southern Magadh and northern Chattisgarh.
The Koel River should be tamed through cooperation between Magadh and Kaoshal. In fact, Magadh and Kaoshal share many common problems.
In controlling or taming rivers, powerful boards of experts should be established which contain representatives of all three stages. This will ensure the successful implementation of river projects. Under international law no country should be allowed to use water according to its own wish.
The hill stage must consult with the plain stage and the plain stage must consult with the delta stage. Nepal, for example, must consult with the plain and delta stages of its rivers which flow through India.
If there is lack of cooperation among the three, the river water coming from the hills or blocked at the delta may submerge a large area of plain land.
Magadh is in a relatively convenient position as both the hill and plain stages of its rivers are in Magadh.