Fertilizers and Research Icon

January 31, 2022

In the distant past, large animals used to go to predetermined places to die. Wild elephants still have this habit.

At such places, with the passage of time the bones of the animals became deposits of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate. Wherever cretaceous animals lived in groups, limestone will be found.

In Assam, for example, limestone and petroleum can be found.

The fat of these huge animals became petroleum and the bones became limestone. In Ráŕh, in Jalda and Jaipur, limestone can also be found. Limestone can be used to manufacture good quality cement, and it helps make oranges sweet.

There are 2 types of fertilizers:

  • organic
  • inorganic.

When fertilizers are used, bacteria are also being used indirectly.

These bacteria function in 2 ways

  • positive
  • negative.

When you utilize bio-fertilizer bacteria, that is, organic fertilizers, the function of the bacteria will only be positive.

You should start practical research into positive microvita from the study of bio-fertilizers and their positive functions.

The urine and dung from sheep are the best organic fertilizers from animals.

  • Sheep to be raised in Ráŕh can be acquired from Bengal, Jammu, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Varieties from Australia can also be used.

Materials for bio-gas include:

  • cow dung
  • buffalo dung
  • sheep dung
  • the dung of mammals kept in protected compounds
  • the organic material from around lakes.

Water hyacinths are also a good raw material for producing bio-gas, but cow dung is best.

The dung of hybrid animals is not as good as that of pure or natural breeds because hybrids are more prone to disease.

Rotten vegetables are the best manure for green vegetables. Cow dung cab also be used.

In the case of gourd, oil cakes and mustard cakes mixed equally with soil will increase production.

Animal fertilizers are insufficient for the maximum utilization of agricultural land. Farmers need chemical fertilizers. However, when chemical fertilizers are used intensively, the land becomes infertile and useless after some time.

This is because chemical fertilizers destroy the vital energy of the land so that it becomes lifeless, just like cement.

Intensive research should be conducted on how to use chemical fertilizers without producing any ill effects on the land. In the system of individual farming it is not possible to escape the ill effects of chemical fertilizers.

The solution is in the cooperative system where there is great scope for research and development to discover new ways to better utilize and prolong the land’s vitality.

Cooperatives combine the wealth and resources of many individuals and harness them in a united way.

In the past, farmers used to leave their land fallow for several years. But this is not possible today.

It is now necessary to adopt a system in which either chemical fertilizers that do not decrease soil fertility are used, or high yields are produced without using chemical fertilizers at all. I am optomistic that this will be achieved in the near future.

Cottage Industries

Various types of cottage industries should be established on master units,(1) subject to the availability of raw materials. Some types of cottage industries include the following:

  1. The first stage of processing farm products of animal and insect origin, such as milk, wool, silk thread, lacquer, honey and wax.
  2. Producing all types of farm products derived from plants, such as papad from pulse, beaten rice from rice, cereal flakes from different types of cereals, jams from fruits, etc.
  3. Industrial products and herbal medicines of plant origin, such as essences, ayurvedic medicines and naturopathic remedies.
  4. Medicines of non-plant origin, such as allopathic and biochemic medicines, as well as medical equipment such as pressure gauges.
  5. Different fibres produced from plants, such as jute, cotton, linen, hemp, banana, pineapple, sisal, okra and basil.
  6. Fibre products of non-plant origin, such as nylon, rayon, plastic and artificial silk.
  7. Articles of mineral but non-metallic origin, such as calcium carbonate, calcium sulphate, calcium phosphate, conch shells, rubber and oyster shells.
  8. Non-metallic products, such as soap, shampoo, liquid soap, toothpaste, toothbrushes, detergent and nectar.
  9. Metallic products from gold, aluminum, bronze, brass, zinc, etc., as well as tin articles, thermometers, crockery and utensils.
  10. Iron materials and articles, such as steel, stainless steel, grinding machines, cement and fertilizers. These are just a few examples of some of the items which can be produced. There are in fact many items which can be produced under each category. In poor areas, two or three simple industries can be started first, such as manufacturing briefcases, medicines or making flour with grinding machines. If cottage industries are properly established, poor local people will enjoy immediate economic benefits.

Energy Production

Energy which can be produced on a small scale includes solar energy, thermal power, bio-gas, hydroelectricity and pneumatic power.

Solar energy for lights and water pumps can be produced from solar panels.

Thermal power can be produced from coal and other fossil fuels.

Bio-gas for generators, cooking, lighting and small generators can be produced from bio-mass waste.

The bio-gas plant harnesses the gas generated by the decomposition of the bio-mass, which can then be collected and used for various purposes. Cow, buffalo and human excreta can be used in bio-gas plants.

The slurry is an excellent manure because it breaks down in about one week, whereas fresh manure takes up to six months. Slurry takes only three days to reach the roots of a plant compared to three months for normal manure. Slurry can nourish a plant within ten days, whereas normal cow dung takes up to nine months.

Small-scale hydroelectric plants can also be constructed in the right environment. For example, on the Daksina River at Ánanda Nagar a plant which can generate hydroelectricity can be constructed. It will be able to give power for up to nine months of the year.

Pneumatic power is one of the cheapest sources of energy for pumps and generators. It is very cheap because the costs include only the initial capital investment to construct the mill and the maintenance costs. It is ideal in windy locations.