Article 9 of the 1973 Constitution Simplified

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January 31, 2022

Article IX

THE PRIME MINISTER, THE CABINET AND THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

Section 1 There shall be a Cabinet which shall be composed of Ministers with or without portfolio appointed by the President. At least a majority of the Members of the Cabinet who are heads of ministries shall come from the Regional Representatives of the Batasang Pambansa.

The Prime Minister shall be the head of the Cabinet. He shall, upon the nomination of the President from among the Members of the Batasang Pambansa, be elected by a majority of all the Members thereof.

SEC. 2. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet shall be responsible to the Batasang Pambansa for the program of government approved by the President.

SEC. 3. There shall be an Executive Committee to be designated by the President, composed of the Prime Minister as Chairman, and not more than fourteen other members, at least half of whom shall be Members of the Batasang Pambansa. The Executive Committee shall assist the President in the exercise of his powers and functions and in the performance of his duties as he may prescribe.

The Members of the Executive Committee shall have the same qualifications as those of the Members of the Batasang Pambansa.

SEC. 4. The term of office of the Prime Minister shall commence from the date of his election by the Batasang Pambansa and shall end on the date that the nomination of his successor is submitted by the President to the Batasang Pambansa. Any other member of the Cabinet or the Executive Committee may be removed at the discretion of the President.

SEC. 5. (1) The President may nominate from among the Members of the Batasang Pambansa a Deputy Prime Minister who shall be elected by a majority of the Members thereof. The Deputy Prime Minister shall perform such functions as may be assigned to him by the Prime Minister.

(2) The President shall also appoint the Deputy Ministers who shall perform such functions as may be assigned to them by law or by the respective heads of ministries.

SEC. 6. The Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister, the Members of the Cabinet, and the Members of the Executive Committee, on assuming office, shall take the following oath or affirmation:

‘I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as (name of position) of the Philippines, preserve and defend its Constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man and consecrate myself to the service of the Nation. So help me God.’ (In case of affirmation, the last sentence will be omitted.)

SEC. 7. The salaries and emoluments of the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister, Members of the Cabinet and of the Executive Committee shall be fixed by law which shall not be increased or decreased during their tenure of office. Until otherwise provided by law, the Prime Minister shall receive the same salary as that of the President.

SEC. 8. The Prime Minister, the Members of the Cabinet and the Members of the Executive Committee, shall be subject to the provisions of Section 11, Article VIII hereof and may not appear as counsel before any court or administrative body, or manage any business, or practice any profession, and shall also be subject to such other disqualifications as may be provided by law.

SEC. 9. The Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister, any Member of the Cabinet or the Executive Committee may resign for any cause without vacating his seat as Regional or Sectoral Representative in the Batasang Pambansa, or any other government position.

SEC. 10. The Prime Minister shall have supervision of all ministries.

Article X

THE JUDICIARY

Section 1. The Judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court and in such inferior courts as may be established by law. The Batasang Pambansa shall have the power to define, prescribe, and apportion the jurisdiction of the various courts, but may not deprive the Supreme Court of its jurisdiction over cases enumerated in Section five hereof.

SEC. 2. (1) The Supreme Court shall be composed of a Chief Justice and fourteen Associate Justices. It may sit en banc or in two divisions.

(2) All cases involving the constitutionality of a treaty, executive agreement, or law shall be heard and decided by the Supreme Court en banc, and no treaty, executive agreement, or law may be declared unconstitutional without the concurrence of at least ten Members. All other cases, which under its rules are required to be heard en banc, shall be decided with the concurrence of at least eight Members.

(3) Cases heard by a division shall be decided with the concurrence of at least five Members, but if such required number is not obtained, the case shall be decided en banc: Provided, that no doctrine or principle of law laid down by the Court in a decision rendered en banc or in division may be modified or reversed except by the Court sitting en banc.

SEC. 3. (l) No person shall be appointed Member of the Supreme Court unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, at least forty years of age, and has for ten years or more been a judge of a court of record or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines.

(2) The Batasang Pambansa shall prescribe the qualifications of judges of inferior courts, but no person may be appointed judge thereof unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and a member of the Philippine Bar.

SEC. 4. The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of inferior courts shall be appointed by the President.

SEC. 5. The Supreme Court shall have the following powers:

(1) Exercise original jurisdiction over cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, and over petitions for certiorari, prohibition, mandamus quo warranto, and habeas corpus.

(2) Review and revise, reverse, modify, or affirm on appeal or certiorari, as the law or the Rules of Court may provide, final judgments and decrees of inferior courts in–

(a) All cases in which the constitutionality or validity of any treaty, executive agreement, law, ordinance, or executive order or regulation is in question.

(b) All cases involving the legality of any tax, impost, assessment, or toll, or any penalty imposed in relation thereto.

(c) All cases in which the jurisdiction of any inferior court is in issue.

(d) All criminal cases in which the penalty imposed is death or life imprisonment.

(e) All cases in which only an error or question of law is involved.

(3) Assign temporarily judges of inferior courts to other stations as public interest may require. Such temporary assignment shall not last longer than six mouths without the consent of the judge concerned.

(4) Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid a miscarriage of justice.

(5) Promulgate rules concerning pleading, practice, and procedure in all courts, the admission to the practice of law, and the integration of the Bar, which, however, may be repealed, altered, or supplemented by the Batasang Pambansa. Such rules shall provide a simplified and.inexpensive procedure for the speedy disposition of cases, shall be uniform for all courts of the same grade, and shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights.

(6) Appoint its officials and employees in accordance with the Civil Service Law.

SEC. 6. The Supreme Court shall have administrative supervision over all courts and the personnel thereof.

SEC. 7. The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of inferior courts shall hold office during good behavior until they reach the age of seventy years or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office. The Supreme Court shall have the power to discipline judges of inferior courts and, by a vote of at least eight Members, order their dismissal.

SEC. 8. The conclusions of the Supreme Court in any case submitted to it for decision en banc or in division shall be reached in consultation before the case is assigned to a Member for the writing of the opinion of the Court. Any Member dissenting from a decision shall state the reasons for his dissent. The same requirements shall be observed by all inferior collegiate courts.

SEC. 9. Every decision of a court of record shall clearly and distinctly state the facts and the law on which it is based. The Rules of Court shall govern the promulgation of minute resolutions.

SEC. 10. The salary of the Chief Justice and of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, and of judges of inferior courts shall be fixed by law, which shall not be decreased during the continuance in office. Until the Batasang Pambansa shall provide otherwise, the Chief Justice shall receive an annual salary of seventy-five thousand pesos, and each Associate Justice, sixty thousand pesos.

SEC.11.(1) Upon the effectivity of this Constitution, the maximum period within which a case or matter shall be decided or resolved from the date of its submission, shall be eighteen months for the Supreme Court, and, unless reduced by the Supreme Court, twelve months for all inferior collegiate courts, and three months for all other inferior courts.

(2) With respect to the Supreme Court and other collegiate appellate courts, when the applicable maximum period shall have lapsed without “the rendition of the corresponding decision or resolution because the necessary vote cannot be had, the judgment, order, or resolution appealed from shall be deemed affirmed, except in those cases where a qualified majority is required and in appeals from judgments of conviction in criminal cases; and in original special civil actions and proceedings for habeas corpus, the petition in such cases shall be deemed dismissed; and a certification to this effect signed by the Chief Magistrate of the court shall be issued and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case.

SEC. 12. The Supreme Court shall, within thirty days from the opening of each regular session of the Batasang Pambansa, submit to the President, the Prime Minister, and the Batasang Pambansa an annual report on the operations and activities of the Judiciary.

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